GET /freshly-pressed/

List Freshly Pressed Posts

Resource URL

Type URL and Format
GET https://public-api.wordpress.com/rest/v1/freshly-pressed/

Query Parameters

Parameter Type Description
http_envelope (bool)
false:
(default)
true:
Some environments (like in-browser Javascript or Flash) block or divert responses with a non-200 HTTP status code. Setting this parameter will force the HTTP status code to always be 200. The JSON response is wrapped in an "envelope" containing the "real" HTTP status code and headers.
pretty (bool)
false:
(default)
true:
Output pretty JSON
meta (string) Optional. Loads data from the endpoints found in the 'meta' part of the response. Comma separated list. Example: meta=site,likes
fields (string) Optional. Returns specified fields only. Comma separated list. Example: fields=ID,title
callback (string) An optional JSONP callback function.
number (int) The number of posts to return. Default: 10. Limit: 40. Default: 10.
after (iso 8601 datetime) Return posts picked on or after the specified datetime.
before (iso 8601 datetime) Return posts picked on or before the specified datetime.
content_width (int) When in context=display, images/embeds in post content will be set to the desired maximum width. Default: 480.
thumb_width (int) Desired width of thumbnail images, in pixels. Default: 252.
thumb_height (int) Desired height of thumbnail images, in pixels. Default: 160.

Response Parameters

Parameter Type Description
ID (int) The post ID.
site_ID (int) The site ID.
author (object) The author of the post.
date (iso 8601 datetime) The post's creation time.
modified (iso 8601 datetime) The post's most recent update time.
title (html) context dependent.
URL (url) The full permalink URL to the post.
short_URL (url) The wp.me short URL.
content (html) context dependent.
excerpt (html) context dependent.
slug (string) The name (slug) for the post, used in URLs.
guid (string) The GUID for the post.
status (string)
publish:
The post is published.
draft:
The post is saved as a draft.
pending:
The post is pending editorial approval.
future:
The post is scheduled for future publishing.
trash:
The post is in the trash.
sticky (bool) Is the post sticky?
password (string) The plaintext password protecting the post, or, more likely, the empty string if the post is not password protected.
parent (object|false) A reference to the post's parent, if it has one.
type (string) The post's post_type. Post types besides post, page and revision need to be whitelisted using the rest_api_allowed_post_types filter.
comments_open (bool) Is the post open for comments?
pings_open (bool) Is the post open for pingbacks, trackbacks?
likes_enabled (bool) Is the post open to likes?
sharing_enabled (bool) Should sharing buttons show on this post?
gplusauthorship_enabled (bool) Should a Google+ account be associated with this post?
comment_count (int) The number of comments for this post.
like_count (int) The number of likes for this post.
i_like (bool) Does the current user like this post?
is_reblogged (bool) Did the current user reblog this post?
is_following (bool) Is the current user following this blog?
global_ID (string) A unique WordPress.com-wide representation of a post.
featured_image (url) The URL to the featured image for this post if it has one.
post_thumbnail (object) The attachment object for the featured image if it has one.
format (string)
standard:
Standard
aside:
Aside
chat:
Chat
gallery:
Gallery
link:
Link
image:
Image
quote:
Quote
status:
Status
video:
Video
audio:
Audio
geo (object|false)
publicize_URLs (array) Array of Twitter and Facebook URLs published by this post.
tags (object) Hash of tags (keyed by tag name) applied to the post.
categories (object) Hash of categories (keyed by category name) applied to the post.
attachments (object) Hash of post attachments (keyed by attachment ID).
metadata (array) Array of post metadata keys and values. All unprotected meta keys are available by default for read requests. Both unprotected and protected meta keys are available for authenticated requests with access. Protected meta keys can be made available with the rest_api_allowed_public_metadata filter.
meta (object) API result meta data
date_range (object) date range covered by current results.
number (int) The number of posts brought back by current query.
posts (array) An array of post objects, with added Freshly Pressed info, in the editorial property for each post.

Example

cURL

curl 'https://public-api.wordpress.com/rest/v1/freshly-pressed/?pretty=1'

PHP

<?php

$options  = array (
  'http' => 
  array (
    'ignore_errors' => true,
  ),
);

$context  = stream_context_create( $options );
$response = file_get_contents(
  'https://public-api.wordpress.com/rest/v1/freshly-pressed/?pretty=1',
  false,
  $context
);
$response = json_decode( $response );

?>

Response Body

{
    "date_range": {
        "newest": "2014-08-30T22:02:02+00:00",
        "oldest": "2014-08-29T16:02:02+00:00"
    },
    "number": 10,
    "posts": [
        {
            "ID": 4842,
            "site_ID": 37357173,
            "author": {
                "ID": 36938704,
                "login": "tutusandtinyhats",
                "email": false,
                "name": "Laura (dusty_rose)",
                "nice_name": "tutusandtinyhats",
                "URL": "http:\/\/tutusandtinyhats.wordpress.com",
                "avatar_URL": "https:\/\/2.gravatar.com\/avatar\/e395d1f90cec303b821cb60ff5da5c59?s=96&d=identicon&r=G",
                "profile_URL": "http:\/\/en.gravatar.com\/tutusandtinyhats",
                "site_ID": 37357173
            },
            "date": "2014-08-22T10:39:59-04:00",
            "modified": "2014-08-30T10:55:50-04:00",
            "title": "Another thing I&#8217;m sick of: blaming fat women for our lack of clothing options",
            "URL": "http:\/\/tutusandtinyhats.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/22\/another-thing-im-sick-of-blaming-fat-women-for-our-lack-of-clothing-options\/",
            "short_URL": "http:\/\/wp.me\/p2wKj3-1g6",
            "content": "<div style=\"width: 810px\" class=\"wp-caption aligncenter\"><img src=\"https:\/\/i0.wp.com\/img.photobucket.com\/albums\/v614\/Lrock212\/DSC01756.jpg\" alt=\"rack of floofy betsey johnson dresses\" width=\"800\" height=\"600\" \/><p class=\"wp-caption-text\">Give me the <a href=\"http:\/\/tutusandtinyhats.wordpress.com\/2012\/07\/16\/betsey-johnson-a-lovehate-relationship\/\">pretties<\/a>, pleeeeease.<\/p><\/div>\n<p>While I&#8217;m on a roll of ranting about <a href=\"http:\/\/tutusandtinyhats.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/21\/im-so-sick-of-fat-shaming-within-the-enviromental-movement\/\">things that piss me off<\/a>, here&#8217;s another one: the recent trend of blaming the lack of plus size clothing options on the supposed buying habits of plus size customers. <a href=\"http:\/\/time.com\/3151039\/plus-size-fashion-retail\/\">This piece<\/a> in TIME, and <a href=\"http:\/\/fashionista.com\/2014\/08\/plus-size-women-problems\">this one<\/a> on Fashionista are two examples, and they make me so viscerally angry that it&#8217;s hard to respond articulately&#8211;but I&#8217;ll try.<\/p>\n<p>&#8220;[R]eal change for plus-size fashion will come when customers make more conscious purchasing decisions,&#8221; claims the TIME piece. Hahahahaha, no. Real change will come when companies realize that fat women are people and start making clothes in our size. It&#8217;s kind of ridiculous to insist that fat women&#8217;s shopping choices must be the issue, when our whole problem is that we don&#8217;t have enough options to choose from in the first place.<\/p>\n<p>In the Fashionista article, a blogger named Sarah Conley claims that plus size women are unwilling to buy higher-priced items. I&#8217;ve seen this claim so many times, and it annoys the shit out of me for a bunch of reasons:<\/p>\n<p>1.) How can retailers know that plus size women won&#8217;t buy higher-priced items if they almost never offer them? It&#8217;s like giving a group of people a choice between peanut butter sandwiches and spaghetti with meatballs, and then claiming that group has no interest in filet mignon.<\/p>\n<p>2.) Plus size clothing already tends to cost more than straight size clothing. Women who wear straight sizes may be more likely to invest in the occasional expensive, high-quality statement piece because they can get the rest of their wardrobe cheaply; women who wear plus sizes have far fewer truly cheap options. A lot of plus size clothing (I&#8217;m looking at you, Torrid) is both pricey and low-quality. And most stores that sell both straight and plus sizes charge more for the latter, even though the cost of the extra fabric is negligible.<\/p>\n<p>In addition, plus size women often have to pay more to find bras in our size. I&#8217;m lucky that the Playtex 18-hour bra fits me comfortably and <a href=\"http:\/\/www.amazon.com\/s\/ref=nb_sb_noss_1?url=search-alias%3Daps&amp;field-keywords=playtex+18+hour+bra&amp;rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3Aplaytex+18+hour+bra\">is super-cheap on Amazon<\/a>, but most fat women I know spend ridiculous amounts of money to get bras that fit, while big-box stores and department stores are full of cute, cheap bras in smaller sizes.<\/p>\n<p>3.) Fat people, especially fat women, <a href=\"http:\/\/www.naafaonline.com\/dev2\/assets\/documents\/naafa_FactSheet_v17_screen.pdf\">face workplace discrimination<\/a>&#8211;so we make less money and therefore have less to spend in the first place.<\/p>\n<p>4.) Even if it&#8217;s true that fat women genuinely have no interest in high-end designer pieces, that doesn&#8217;t explain the lack of affordable options in our size range.\u00a0 <\/p>\n<div style=\"width: 420px\" class=\"wp-caption aligncenter\"><img class=\"\" src=\"https:\/\/i0.wp.com\/img.photobucket.com\/albums\/v614\/Lrock212\/14318760_130119163000_zps7da7b2bb.jpg\" alt=\"\" width=\"410\" height=\"410\" \/><p class=\"wp-caption-text\">Is it really so much to ask for <a href=\"http:\/\/tutusandtinyhats.wordpress.com\/2013\/03\/04\/2652\/\">this<\/a> to come in size fat?<\/p><\/div>\n<p>Further down in the article, Conley huffs that &#8220;<span class=\"ng-scope\">many women are spending money on cheaper things that they don&#8217;t necessarily like just because they&#8217;re available in their size rather than waiting to spend more money on a few special pieces they really love. <\/span>&#8220;<\/p>\n<p>What are we supposed to do while we wait&#8211;walk around naked?\u00a0 Most fat women don&#8217;t have the luxury of waiting around for the perfect, high-quality piece&#8211;we need clothing right now for work, or to wear to a friend&#8217;s wedding, or to work out in.<\/p>\n<p>She mentions tailoring as an option that more plus size women should take. Although I&#8217;m pro-tailoring, I think it&#8217;s ridiculous to expect that all fat women should do it rather than, you know, ask for clothing that fits us in the first place.\u00a0 Why should we have to put in the extra time, money, and energy to get our clothes tailored when straight size women can walk into almost any store and find clothing that fits them?<\/p>\n<p>That brings me to another factor that always gets left out in these victim-blaming discussions: the extremely limited availability of brick-and-mortar plus size options. While the online options for plus size clothing have expanded dramatically in the last few years (and I will be the first person to celebrate that with balloons, confetti, and cupcakes), our options for in-person shopping remain&#8211;pun intended&#8211;slim.<\/p>\n<p>As a woman who usually wears a size 22, I&#8217;ve pretty much given up on in-person shopping except for thrift stores, because there are so few stores in the Boston area that carry my size. I&#8217;m lucky that I can find clothing that fits me online relatively easily&#8211;I know what shapes and sizes tend to fit me, and as long as I stick with them, I don&#8217;t have to return many of my purchases. But for a lot of women, online shopping is an exercise in frustration that involves returning almost everything they buy. And then there&#8217;s the cost of shipping and returns, which is prohibitive for many women, and just annoying for others.<\/p>\n<p>An anonymous blogger quoted in the Fashionista piece complains that plus size fashion &#8220;<span class=\"ng-scope\">[has] become such an angry section of fashion,&#8221; as if fat women are just irrationally mad. I<\/span>t&#8217;s not like we face discrimination and harassment for our size, find few representations of ourselves in the media, and pay extra in both time and effort for the limited, lower-quality clothing options we do have, or anything&#8230;no, we&#8217;re just whiners who refuse to be grateful for whatever crumbs the fashion industry throws our way.<\/p>\n<p>The lack of plus size clothing options is a direct result of society-wide fat-phobia, full stop. It&#8217;s not the fault of fat women, whatever our buying habits.<\/p>\n",
            "excerpt": "<p>While I&#8217;m on a roll of ranting about things that piss me off, here&#8217;s another one: the recent trend of blaming the lack of plus size clothing options on the supposed buying habits of plus size customers. This piece in &hellip; <a href=\"http:\/\/tutusandtinyhats.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/22\/another-thing-im-sick-of-blaming-fat-women-for-our-lack-of-clothing-options\/\">Continue reading <span class=\"meta-nav\">&rarr;<\/span><\/a><\/p>\n",
            "slug": "another-thing-im-sick-of-blaming-fat-women-for-our-lack-of-clothing-options",
            "guid": "http:\/\/tutusandtinyhats.wordpress.com\/?p=4842",
            "status": "publish",
            "sticky": false,
            "password": "",
            "parent": false,
            "type": "post",
            "comments_open": true,
            "pings_open": true,
            "likes_enabled": true,
            "sharing_enabled": true,
            "gplusauthorship_enabled": false,
            "comment_count": 44,
            "like_count": 74,
            "i_like": 0,
            "is_reblogged": 0,
            "is_following": 0,
            "global_ID": "ad2de0281e258a8c7f815daf2d3207a1",
            "featured_image": "",
            "post_thumbnail": null,
            "format": "standard",
            "geo": false,
            "publicize_URLs": [

            ],
            "tags": {
                "betsey johnson": {
                    "ID": 291546,
                    "name": "betsey johnson",
                    "slug": "betsey-johnson",
                    "description": "",
                    "post_count": 4,
                    "meta": {
                        "links": {
                            "self": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173\/tags\/slug:betsey-johnson",
                            "help": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173\/tags\/slug:betsey-johnson\/help",
                            "site": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173"
                        }
                    }
                },
                "fashionista": {
                    "ID": 12981,
                    "name": "fashionista",
                    "slug": "fashionista",
                    "description": "",
                    "post_count": 1,
                    "meta": {
                        "links": {
                            "self": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173\/tags\/slug:fashionista",
                            "help": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173\/tags\/slug:fashionista\/help",
                            "site": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173"
                        }
                    }
                },
                "plus size fashion": {
                    "ID": 580622,
                    "name": "plus size fashion",
                    "slug": "plus-size-fashion",
                    "description": "",
                    "post_count": 1,
                    "meta": {
                        "links": {
                            "self": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173\/tags\/slug:plus-size-fashion",
                            "help": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173\/tags\/slug:plus-size-fashion\/help",
                            "site": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173"
                        }
                    }
                },
                "prabal gurung for target": {
                    "ID": 119861363,
                    "name": "prabal gurung for target",
                    "slug": "prabal-gurung-for-target",
                    "description": "",
                    "post_count": 1,
                    "meta": {
                        "links": {
                            "self": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173\/tags\/slug:prabal-gurung-for-target",
                            "help": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173\/tags\/slug:prabal-gurung-for-target\/help",
                            "site": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173"
                        }
                    }
                },
                "time": {
                    "ID": 5087,
                    "name": "time",
                    "slug": "time",
                    "description": "",
                    "post_count": 1,
                    "meta": {
                        "links": {
                            "self": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173\/tags\/slug:time",
                            "help": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173\/tags\/slug:time\/help",
                            "site": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173"
                        }
                    }
                }
            },
            "categories": {
                "Fatshion Rants": {
                    "ID": 197119488,
                    "name": "Fatshion Rants",
                    "slug": "fatshion-rants",
                    "description": "",
                    "post_count": 13,
                    "parent": 0,
                    "meta": {
                        "links": {
                            "self": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173\/categories\/slug:fatshion-rants",
                            "help": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173\/categories\/slug:fatshion-rants\/help",
                            "site": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173"
                        }
                    }
                }
            },
            "attachments": {

            },
            "metadata": [
                {
                    "id": "13457",
                    "key": "_wpas_done_1556172",
                    "value": "1"
                },
                {
                    "id": "13453",
                    "key": "_wpas_done_1718808",
                    "value": "1"
                },
                {
                    "id": "13666",
                    "key": "_wpas_skip_1556172",
                    "value": "1"
                },
                {
                    "id": "13665",
                    "key": "_wpas_skip_1718808",
                    "value": "1"
                }
            ],
            "meta": {
                "links": {
                    "self": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173\/posts\/4842",
                    "help": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173\/posts\/4842\/help",
                    "site": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173",
                    "replies": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173\/posts\/4842\/replies\/",
                    "likes": "https:\/\/public-api.wordpress.com\/rest\/v1\/sites\/37357173\/posts\/4842\/likes\/"
                }
            },
            "featured_media": {

            },
            "pseudo_ID": "ad2de0281e258a8c7f815daf2d3207a1",
            "is_external": false,
            "site_name": "Tutus And Tiny Hats",
            "site_URL": "http:\/\/tutusandtinyhats.wordpress.com",
            "site_is_private": false,
            "editorial": {
                "blog_id": "37357173",
                "post_id": "4842",
                "image": "https:\/\/s2.wp.com\/imgpress?crop=0px%2C0px%2C252px%2C160px&url=https%3A%2F%2Fs1.wp.com%2Fimgpress%3Fw%3D252%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fimg.photobucket.com%252Falbums%252Fv614%252FLrock212%252FDSC01756.jpg&unsharpmask=80,0.5,3",
                "custom_headline": "Blaming Fat Women For Our Lack of Clothing Options",
                "custom_blog_title": "",
                "displayed_on": "2014-08-30T22:02:02+00:00",
                "picked_on": "1970-01-01T00:33:34+00:00",
                "highlight_topic": "fashion",
                "highlight_topic_title": "Fashion",
                "screen_offset": "-9",
                "blog_name": "Tutus And Tiny Hats",
                "site_id": "1"
            }
        },
        {
            "ID": 4045,
            "site_ID": 10190213,
            "author": {
                "ID": 10540832,
                "login": "cameronkarsten",
                "email": false,
                "name": "cameronkarsten",
                "nice_name": "cameronkarsten",
                "URL": "http:\/\/cameronkarsten.wordpress.com",
                "avatar_URL": "https:\/\/2.gravatar.com\/avatar\/e089a60e6e36982998956f7cd0d9af0c?s=96&d=identicon&r=G",
                "profile_URL": "http:\/\/en.gravatar.com\/cameronkarsten",
                "site_ID": 10190213
            },
            "date": "2014-08-18T19:52:34+00:00",
            "modified": "2014-08-18T19:52:34+00:00",
            "title": "All Across Africa &#8211; Women&#8217;s Cooperatives in Rwanda",
            "URL": "http:\/\/cameronkarsten.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/18\/all-across-africa-womens-cooperatives-in-rwanda\/",
            "short_URL": "http:\/\/wp.me\/pGKWh-13f",
            "content": "<p><a href=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day1_weavers_buyday-891.jpg\"><img class=\"aligncenter size-full wp-image-4050\" src=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day1_weavers_buyday-891.jpg?w=480\" alt=\"Day1_Weavers_BuyDay-891\"   \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\">In February of this year, I joined All Across Africa in Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi for an amazing two-week journey through their women&#8217;s basket weaving\u00a0cooperatives, as well as sewing schools designed for young adults. It was a beautiful experience showing the strength of a non-profit empowering locals by providing proper skill set training as well as a growing community of business development. The following are images throughout Rwanda. All products can be purchased by going to <a href=\"http:\/\/www.allacrossafrica.org\" target=\"_blank\">www.AllAcrossAfrica.org<\/a><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day13_rwandasisaldye-576.jpg\"><img class=\"aligncenter size-full wp-image-4062\" src=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day13_rwandasisaldye-576.jpg?w=480\" alt=\"Day13_RwandaSisalDye-576\"   \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day2_sewing_bracelets-451.jpg\"><img class=\"aligncenter size-full wp-image-4055\" src=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day2_sewing_bracelets-451.jpg?w=480\" alt=\"Day2_Sewing_Bracelets-451\"   \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day1_weavers_buyday-522.jpg\"><img class=\"aligncenter size-full wp-image-4049\" src=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day1_weavers_buyday-522.jpg?w=480\" alt=\"Day1_Weavers_BuyDay-522\"   \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day13_rwandasisaldye-1302.jpg\"><img class=\"aligncenter size-full wp-image-4065\" src=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day13_rwandasisaldye-1302.jpg?w=480\" alt=\"Day13_RwandaSisalDye-1302\"   \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day1_weavers_buyday-425.jpg\"><img class=\"aligncenter size-full wp-image-4048\" src=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day1_weavers_buyday-425.jpg?w=480\" alt=\"Day1_Weavers_BuyDay-425\"   \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day1_weavers_buyday-73.jpg\"><img class=\"aligncenter size-full wp-image-4046\" src=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day1_weavers_buyday-73.jpg?w=480\" alt=\"Day1_Weavers_BuyDay-73\"   \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day1_weavers_buyday-1032.jpg\"><img class=\"aligncenter size-full wp-image-4051\" src=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day1_weavers_buyday-1032.jpg?w=480\" alt=\"Day1_Weavers_BuyDay-1032\"   \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day13_rwandasisaldye-1163.jpg\"><img class=\"aligncenter size-full wp-image-4064\" src=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day13_rwandasisaldye-1163.jpg?w=480\" alt=\"Day13_RwandaSisalDye-1163\"   \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day2_sewing_bracelets-691.jpg\"><img class=\"aligncenter size-full wp-image-4056\" src=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day2_sewing_bracelets-691.jpg?w=480\" alt=\"Day2_Sewing_Bracelets-691\"   \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day12_rwandagikondo-296.jpg\"><img class=\"aligncenter size-full wp-image-4057\" src=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day12_rwandagikondo-296.jpg?w=480\" alt=\"Day12_RwandaGikondo-296\"   \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day1_weavers_buyday-1258.jpg\"><img class=\"aligncenter size-full wp-image-4052\" src=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day1_weavers_buyday-1258.jpg?w=480\" alt=\"Day1_Weavers_BuyDay-1258\"   \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day2_sewing_bracelets-303.jpg\"><img class=\"aligncenter size-full wp-image-4054\" src=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day2_sewing_bracelets-303.jpg?w=480\" alt=\"Day2_Sewing_Bracelets-303\"   \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day1_weavers_buyday-1371.jpg\"><img class=\"aligncenter size-full wp-image-4053\" src=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day1_weavers_buyday-1371.jpg?w=480\" alt=\"Day1_Weavers_BuyDay-1371\"   \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day13_rwandasisaldye-386.jpg\"><img class=\"aligncenter size-full wp-image-4059\" src=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day13_rwandasisaldye-386.jpg?w=480\" alt=\"Day13_RwandaSisalDye-386\"   \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day13_rwandasisaldye-479.jpg\"><img class=\"aligncenter size-full wp-image-4060\" src=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day13_rwandasisaldye-479.jpg?w=480\" alt=\"Day13_RwandaSisalDye-479\"   \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day13_rwandasisaldye-790.jpg\"><img class=\"aligncenter size-full wp-image-4063\" src=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day13_rwandasisaldye-790.jpg?w=480\" alt=\"Day13_RwandaSisalDye-790\"   \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><a href=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day13_rwandasisaldye-303.jpg\"><img class=\"aligncenter size-full wp-image-4058\" src=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/day13_rwandasisaldye-303.jpg?w=480\" alt=\"Day13_RwandaSisalDye-303\"   \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\">Please visit <a href=\"http:\/\/www.allacrossafrica.org\" target=\"_blank\">www.AllAcrossAfrica.org<\/a> to support the women of Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><a href=\"http:\/\/www.cameronkarsten.com\"><img class=\"aligncenter size-medium wp-image-3910\" src=\"https:\/\/cameronkarsten.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/03\/logo_blacktrajan.jpg?w=300&#038;h=84\" alt=\"Cameron Karsten Photography\" width=\"300\" height=\"84\" \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\">\n",
            "excerpt": "<p>In February of this year, I joined All Across Africa in Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi for an amazing two-week journey through their women&#8217;s basket weaving cooperatives, as well as sewing schools designed for young adults. It was a beautiful experience showing the strength of a non-profit empowering locals by providing proper skill set training as well as a growing community of business development. The following are images throughout Rwanda. All products can be purchased by going to <a href=\"http:\/\/www.AllAcrossAfrica.org\" rel=\"nofollow\">http:\/\/www.AllAcrossAfrica.org<\/a> <a href=\"http:\/\/cameronkarsten.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/18\/all-across-africa-womens-cooperatives-in-rwanda\/\">Continue reading <span class=\"meta-nav\">&rarr;<\/span><\/a><\/p>\n",
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            "date": "2014-08-29T08:06:40-07:00",
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            "title": "Welcome the Internet Archive to The Commons",
            "URL": "http:\/\/blog.flickr.net\/2014\/08\/29\/welcome-the-internet-archive-to-the-commons\/",
            "short_URL": "http:\/\/wp.me\/p41bd-fr3",
            "content": "<p><a href=\"https:\/\/www.flickr.com\/photos\/internetarchivebookimages\/14566982717\"><img src=\"https:\/\/farm6.staticflickr.com\/5566\/14566982717_08fe2cd7c2_n.jpg\" alt=\"Image from page 28 of &quot;Atlas maritimus, or A book of charts : Describeing the sea coasts capes headlands sands shoals rocks and dangers the bayes roads harbors rivers and ports, in most of the knowne parts of the world. With the true courses and distances\" width=\"320\" height=\"268\" \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p>Over the past couple of weeks, <a href=\"https:\/\/www.flickr.com\/photos\/internetarchivebookimages\/\">The Internet Archive<\/a> has already been uploading content behind the scenes, and today we are very excited to officially launch them into <a href=\"http:\/\/www.flickr.com\/commons\">The Commons<\/a>.<\/p>\n<p>The Internet Archive is best known for its historical library of the web, preserving more than 400 billion web pages dating back to 1996.  Yet, its 19 petabytes include more than 600 million pages of digitized texts dating back more than 500 years. What would it look like if those 600 million pages could be &#8220;read&#8221; completely differently?  What if every illustration, drawing, chart, map, or photograph became an entry point, allowing one to navigate the world\u2019s books not as paragraphs of text, but as a visual tapestry of our lives?  How would we learn and explore knowledge differently? Those were the questions that launched a project to catalog the imagery of half a millennium of books.<\/p>\n<p>The Internet Archive processed more than 2 million volumes from its digital archive, compiling more than 14 million high resolution images spanning nearly every topic imaginable. Each image includes detailed descriptions, including the subject tags of the book it came from and the text immediately surrounding it on the page. The latter is especially powerful, as it allows to keyword search 500 years of images, instantly accessing particular topics or themes. Searching for <a href=\"https:\/\/www.flickr.com\/search\/?text=love&amp;user_id=126377022%40N07&amp;sort=relevance\">love<\/a> yields a myriad images of cherubs and courtship, while <a href=\"https:\/\/www.flickr.com\/search\/?text=mortis&amp;user_id=126377022%40N07&amp;sort=relevance\">mortis<\/a> (death) offers a glimpse into the early modern period\u2019s fascination with the subject. A search for <a href=\"https:\/\/www.flickr.com\/search\/?text=bird&amp;user_id=126377022%40N07&amp;sort=relevance\">bird<\/a> offers a vividly colorful showcase of the world\u2019s bird species, while searching for <a href=\"https:\/\/www.flickr.com\/search\/?text=telephone&amp;user_id=126377022%40N07&amp;sort=relevance\">telephone<\/a> traces the invention\u2019s history from its introduction as an electric novelty to its widespread adoption. <\/p>\n<p>Perhaps what is most remarkable about this collection is that these images come not from some newly-unearthed archive being seen for the first time, but rather from the books that we have been digitizing for years that have been resting in our digital libraries. Through the power of <a href=\"http:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Big_data\">big data<\/a> we are suddenly able to view the world\u2019s books not as merely piles of text, but as individualized galleries of one of the richest and most diverse museums of imagery in the world.  <\/p>\n<p>The Internet Archive&#8217;s team hopes that this project inspires us all to reconnect with our cultural past and that you will join this exciting journey to unlock the visual tapestry of the world\u2019s books. Check back regularly as more of the 14 million images will be uploaded to Flickr over the coming months!<\/p>\n<p><a href=\"https:\/\/www.flickr.com\/photos\/internetarchivebookimages\/14747475295\"><img src=\"https:\/\/farm3.staticflickr.com\/2900\/14747475295_92fe4fa21b_n.jpg\" alt=\"Image from page 69 of &quot;[Publications relating to the wedding of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Margarita Teresa, Infanta of Spain]&quot; (1666)\" width=\"320\" height=\"199\" \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p><a href=\"https:\/\/www.flickr.com\/photos\/internetarchivebookimages\/14748750464\"><img src=\"https:\/\/farm3.staticflickr.com\/2935\/14748750464_99205675f4_n.jpg\" alt=\"Image from page 472 of &quot;Die Nordamerikanische Vogelwelt&quot; (1891)\" width=\"251\" height=\"320\" \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p><a href=\"https:\/\/www.flickr.com\/photos\/internetarchivebookimages\/14564839799\"><img src=\"https:\/\/farm4.staticflickr.com\/3863\/14564839799_98f9c5fafe_n.jpg\" alt=\"Image from page 133 of &quot;Bird-lore&quot; (1899)\" width=\"320\" height=\"238\" \/><\/a><\/p>\n<p><a href=\"https:\/\/www.flickr.com\/photos\/internetarchivebookimages\/14564740837\"><img src=\"https:\/\/farm4.staticflickr.com\/3843\/14564740837_4ebf56499d_n.jpg\" alt=\"Image from page 956 of &quot;Imago primi saeculi Societatis Iesu&quot; (1640)\" width=\"320\" height=\"220\" \/><\/a><\/p>\n",
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            "date": "2014-08-29T08:37:16-07:00",
            "modified": "2014-08-29T14:13:29-07:00",
            "title": "Seeing Through the Illusion: Understanding Apple&#8217;s Mastery of the Media",
            "URL": "http:\/\/9to5mac.com\/2014\/08\/29\/seeing-through-the-illusion-understanding-apples-mastery-of-the-media\/",
            "short_URL": "http:\/\/wp.me\/p1xtr9-1pXf",
            "content": "<div id=\"attachment_335356\" style=\"width: 1118px\" class=\"wp-caption aligncenter\"><a href=\"https:\/\/9to5mac.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/cottoncook.jpg\"><img class=\"wp-image-335356 size-full\" src=\"https:\/\/9to5mac.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/cottoncook.jpg?w=480\" alt=\"Cotton:Cook\"   \/><\/a><p class=\"wp-caption-text\">Apple CEO Tim Cook with former VP of Worldwide Communications Katie Cotton<\/p><\/div>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><strong>\u201cBeautifully, unapologetically plastic.\u201d<\/strong><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><strong>\u201cFeature for feature, it\u2019s identical to iPad Air in every way.&#8221;<\/strong><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><strong>\u201cJust avoid holding it in that way.&#8221;<\/strong><\/p>\n<p class=\"\">Apple\u2019s public relations (PR) department is probably the best in the world \u2014 certainly more impressive at shaping and controlling the discussion of its products than any other technology company. Before customers get their first chance to see or touch a new Apple product, the company has carefully orchestrated almost every one of its public appearances: controlled leaks and advance briefings for favored writers, an invite-only media debut, and a special early review process for a group of pre-screened, known-positive writers. Nothing is left to chance, and in the rare case where Apple doesn\u2019t control the initial message, it remedies that by using proxies to deliver carefully crafted, off-the-record responses.<\/p>\n<div class=\"\">\n<p class=\"\">Except for a few big exceptions, such as the memorably off-pitch quotes above, Apple\u2019s \u201ctell them what to believe\u201d PR strategy has worked incredibly well for years. But it has also created tensions between the company and the people who cover it, as well as within Apple itself. The company\u2019s long-time head of PR, Katie Cotton, left the company earlier this year as CEO Tim Cook openly sought to make a major change in the way Apple interacted with the press and its customers. As the hunt for Cotton\u2019s replacement is still in progress, and the depth of Apple\u2019s commitment to change remains unclear, we look today at the techniques Apple has used to quietly manipulate its coverage over the years.<\/p>\n<\/div>\n<div class=\"\">\n<p class=\"\">You can navigate between the chapters, below:<\/p>\n<p><strong>- Part\u00a01) <a href=\"http:\/\/9to5mac.com\/2014\/08\/29\/part-1-apple-events-and-shredded-white-booklets\/\">Apple Events and Shredded White Booklets<\/a><\/strong><\/p>\n<p><strong>- Part 2) <a href=\"http:\/\/9to5mac.com\/2014\/08\/29\/part-2-introducing-the-teams-how-pr-is-organized-at-3-infinite-loop\/\">Introducing the Teams: How PR Is Organized at 3 Infinite Loop<\/a><\/strong><\/p>\n<p><strong>- Part 3) <a href=\"http:\/\/9to5mac.com\/2014\/08\/29\/part-3-strategies-the-art-of-deep-background-and-controlling-the-press\/\">Strategies: The &#8220;Art of Deep Background&#8221; and Controlling the Press<\/a><\/strong><\/p>\n<p><strong>- Part 4) <a href=\"http:\/\/9to5mac.com\/2014\/08\/29\/part-4-the-departure-of-a-tyrant\/\">The Departure of a &#8220;Tyrant&#8221;<\/a><\/strong><\/p>\n<p><strong>- Part 5) <a href=\"http:\/\/9to5mac.com\/2014\/08\/29\/part-5-two-heads-in-place-of-one\/\">Two Heads In Place Of One<\/a><\/strong><\/p>\n<p><strong>- Part 6) <a href=\"http:\/\/9to5mac.com\/2014\/08\/29\/part-6-controversies-from-maps-to-beats-to-haunted-empires\/\">Controversies: From Maps\u00a0to Beats\u00a0to Haunted Empires<\/a><\/strong><\/p>\n<p><strong>- Part 7) <a href=\"http:\/\/9to5mac.com\/2014\/08\/29\/part-7-product-reviews-briefings-reviewers-guides\/\">Product Reviews, Briefings, &amp; Reviewer&#8217;s Guides<\/a><\/strong><\/p>\n<p><strong>- Part 8) <a href=\"http:\/\/9to5mac.com\/2014\/08\/29\/part-8-steve-jobs-and-the-process-behind-press-releases\/\">Steve Jobs and the Process Behind Press Releases<\/a><\/strong><\/p>\n<p><strong>- Part 9) <a href=\"http:\/\/9to5mac.com\/2014\/08\/29\/part-9-a-friendlier-more-transparent-future\/\">A\u00a0Friendlier, More Transparent Future?<\/a><\/strong><\/p>\n<p>Two months in the making, this article is the product of over a dozen interviews with journalists, bloggers, and PR professionals, including many\u00a0who have worked at Apple.<\/p>\n<\/div>\n",
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            "content": "<p style=\"text-align:justify;\"><img class=\"alignleft\" src=\"https:\/\/i0.wp.com\/www.advisoranalyst.com\/glablog\/wp-content\/uploads\/2014\/06\/blowing-bubbles-small-113406397.jpg\" alt=\"\" width=\"231\" height=\"153\" \/>I\u2019m doing something in the room and The Boy walks in stealthily from behind me and suddenly there is a shower of bubbles in the air and lots of childish laughter. I turn my face and I see a host of bubbles floating up and up and up towards the light, their shiny surfaces catching the light and turning them into iridescent rainbow hues. It\u2019s hard to tell how each bubble will float away, where it will stick and when it will burst. \u00a0But together they transform the room.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">Actually I\u2019m not just sitting here doing <em>something<\/em>. I\u2019m writing yet another blog post. It isn&#8217;t unusual at all, while I\u2019m writing, for a childish face to peek in and insist on typing a word or two or close a window or want to check out a blinking light below the touchpad. But bubbles? They are new.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">The bubbles floating around me make me think of a lot of writing I\u2019ve been doing lately. Light, beautiful, polished, iridescent and ephemeral.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">What really has been the end goal of these pieces? To live for a bit, to catch the light, to stick in someone\u2019s mind for a moment and then to disappear? To float directionless, to dazzle and to die?<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">There\u2019s other kinds of writing I do too\u2014heavier, academic writing with more substance as opposed to these blog posts, tweets and updates I\u2019ve been doing lately. The other kind of writing seems more anchored in logic and research, aimed to prove a point and to last a long time until someone comes to extend my work or to burst my bubble.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">It is at that word <em>substance<\/em> that my mind sticks as I trace the movements of The Boy as he changes his tactics from surprising me from behind with his shower of bubbles to blowing single large ones out of the wire loop, letting them float for a bit and then making them sit on his loop again so each bubble looks like a huge glass ball at the end of a stick for a few moments before inevitably bursting again.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">I watch him as he tries over and over and over again to make each bubble live as long as it can. He positions his eye such that he can look at me though the bubble marveling at the distorted view of my face. I am amazed at his perseverance at mastering such a pointless task, the end goal of which is nothing but an out-of-proportion eye, a nose or a cheek seen for a moment.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">Yet he carries on and I realize that the task is not easy. It is a delicate challenge to blow through the loop just right so the bubble doesn&#8217;t burst prematurely, to blow just enough so it can form properly and then let it go. If one&#8217;s\u00a0timing isn&#8217;t right, if one is\u00a0too forceful or too tentative, one\u00a0ends up bursting one&#8217;s\u00a0bubble.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">And so it is, I realize, with my <em>style<\/em>. My pieces on social media lately have been short, well-rounded, light, beautiful, somewhat iridescent but I worry about substance. I worry too that I cannot control who will see it, how it will be shared, in whose mind it will stick and how it will be used. It will last a few moments and then it will surely drift to die no matter how much I persevere in the making of it otherwise.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">It is then that I start to ponder with some uneasiness <a title=\"Dani Shapiro\" href=\"http:\/\/www.newyorker.com\/culture\/cultural-comment\/memoir-status-update\" target=\"_blank\">a piece<\/a> I read by Dani Shapiro this week about writing memoir in the age of social media in <em>The<\/em> <em>New Yorker<\/em>. Shapiro talks about how we\u2019re increasingly confusing the \u201csmall, sorry details\u201d of our lives that we post on social media, things that provide immediate gratification, unpolished stories not grounded enough in \u201cthe chaos of our own history\u201d for the work of memoir itself. In this context she quotes Adrienne Rich to make her point about artistic creation. \u201cIt is always what is under pressure in us, especially under pressure of concealment\u2014that explodes in poetry\u201d and this pressure does not get a chance to build up because it is released prematurely via social media before it can transform to art.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">Not that I am presumptuous enough to say I&#8217;ve been writing bits of memoir here but I must admit I&#8217;ve been worried about revealing some before\u00a0concealing some in my writings on online platforms, yes. \u00a0\u201cOne of literary memoir\u2019s greatest satisfactions\u2014both for writer and reader\u2014is the slow, deliberate making of a story, of making\u00a0<em>sense<\/em>, out of randomness and pain\u201d says Shapiro. In other words, you have to wait before you put it out there and I haven\u2019t.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">So then I begin to wonder: Is my bubble-making on social media making any sense? Should I have waited for delayed gratification letting the pressure build until it burst so I would have made a story out of whatever this is before letting it out into the world? \u00a0Should I have waited for critical distance?<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">It is then that I go back to the <a title=\"Wordsworth\" href=\"http:\/\/www.bartleby.com\/39\/36.html\" target=\"_blank\">words of a favourite poet<\/a> for help. He\u00a0says that poetry is the &#8220;spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings&#8221; but also confuses readers by saying it is &#8220;emotion recollected in tranquility&#8221; leading to a general opportunity amongst my college professors to assign hard essays for us in my day on how he\u00a0reconciles the two. But I don\u2019t want to drift off here like my bubbles.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">After all, Shapiro quotes Emerson saying abiding gratification is about \u201cfinding the universal thread that connects us to the rest of humanity.\u201d In my book, that\u2019s what social media is. Why can\u2019t a new generation find new ways of telling stories by concealing and revealing at the same time forging its own form to tell its own stories in its own way? What if that new form embraces the immediacy and ephemerality of social media?<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">The point is, should I continue to let The Boy make his own bubbles? Or should he go back to his lessons?<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">I let The Boy continue for a bit even though a bubble or two threatened to come stick on my keyboard because it becomes clearer by the minute that he has yet to learn an important lesson that he doesn&#8217;t seem to have figured out yet. That no matter how hard he tries, each and every bubble will inevitably burst in the end no matter how beautiful they are or\u00a0how much he might try to control their destiny.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">It is a lesson I cannot help him with but one he has to learn himself by making his bubbles in all the ways he possibly can.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">But\u00a0then I realize that I have an important lesson to learn from him too. 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            "content": "<p style=\"text-align:justify;\"><a href=\"http:\/\/xkcd.com\/756\/\"><img class=\"alignnone wp-image-2822 size-medium\" src=\"https:\/\/epriego.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/public_opinion.png?w=287&#038;h=300\" alt=\"Public Opinion \"   \/><\/a><\/p>\n<blockquote>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">&#8220;Within a philosophical frame of reference, Opinion is the lowest form of knowledge, something like prejudice, a mental state which tends to agreement to something represented. It is quite the contrary to Conviction, which is not a question of agreement, but of existence. [...] We no longer know what the exterior world is because, in effect, opinion reigns.&#8221;<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">-R\u00e9gis Debrais, in conversation with Jacques Julliard, <em>Le Monde<\/em>, 1 June 2008<\/p>\n<\/blockquote>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\"><strong>I<\/strong>t&#8217;s been a while since I wrote a post like this. I&#8217;m not unaware of a potential irony here, writing an opinion piece about the &#8220;reign of opinion&#8221;. I can perhaps justify it by saying that Twitter has had a negative effect on long-form blogging. It&#8217;s always technically easier, and way faster, to sharpshoot a series of quick opinions under 140 characters than sit down and type something slightly coherent as a longer blog post.\u00a0 I know, this is a post that does not fit well in our <a title=\"http:\/\/www.urbandictionary.com\/define.php?term=tl%3Bdr\" href=\"http:\/\/www.urbandictionary.com\/define.php?term=tl%3Bdr\" target=\"_blank\">tl;dr<\/a> days&#8230;<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">I am not new to Twitter. Those who read me (and those who hang out with me) know I am very much into it. I have written a little bit about it, here and elsewhere, on its role as a scholarly platform. My presence or activity on Twitter throughout these years has been one of constant negotiation and renegotiation; the Network, like its users, never stays fixed; it keeps changing and so do its effects on us and the rest of society.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">In the field known as digital humanities, Twitter is an important platform for colleagues to interact, share ideas and work. My own work tracking and archiving academic hashtags reveals substantial growth in academic Twitter adoption since at least 2010. Twitter is no longer an obscure, underground network, but one of the most important media outlets in the world in its own right. For higher education or for anyone else, Twitter is, more than the semi-private spaces of Facebook, increasingly becoming the main way in which many people inform themselves online. Twitter <em>is<\/em> news, and Twitter is <em>the<\/em> news. At the same time, there are millions of people who don&#8217;t use Twitter. You already know this, so why am I tell you this again?<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">As it often happens after you&#8217;ve been on Twitter for a while, there comes a point of saturation. No sophisticated, educated filtering or curating strategy can help avoid it, because Twitter works <em>through<\/em> or <em>in spite of<\/em> or <em>within the limits of <\/em>saturation. It is meant to reach that point, in which seemingly everybody&#8217;s thoughts are being broadcasted and available for further re-broadcasting, annotation, critique, &#8216;favouriting&#8217;, collection, editing, reuse. Increasingly, Twitter can be experienced like a dystopian collective stream of consciousness, unfiltered and largely uncensored, where a multiplicity of voices express their opinions at once, often over-writing each other, bumping into each other, complementing each other, adding up each other, and sometimes, perhaps unavoidably, becoming an unbearable cacophony, as if a department store had a thousand TV sets on, each on a different channel, volume cranked up.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">I understand Twitter as both a means to an end as an an end in itself. I prefer it as a means: a springboard to disseminate links to other platforms that allow for longer texts where ideas can be articulated in a way that the shorter word-count of Twitter does not allow. I prefer Twitter as a means to share links to posts, journal articles, other pieces of information available on other places of the Web. Twitter as a passageway and distribution channel for what lies beyond Twitter itself. This does not mean I don&#8217;t see the potential value of Tweets that do not link anywhere but themselves or other Tweets&#8211; that is, Tweets as texts as ends in themselves, as discrete textual units that do not refer to information available on different locations or addresses (URLs, DOIs) elsewhere outside Twitter. The issue with this kind of Tweet is that it is meant to be received on its own, potentially at different times and in different contexts, and even when part of a series of other Tweets it will be decontextualised, a discrete unit on its own, and therefore always-already subject to mis- or re-interpretation.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">Tweets-as-Ends-in-Themselves are often the expression of a personal opinion. Many take the form of clever aphorisms; other of jokes or turns-of-phrase; other of maxims, judgements or mandates. Often they resemble the short messages I first saw as a young man on the then-fully-analogue streets of Mexico City, during political demonstrations, the same phrases that were chanted repeatedly, again and again and again, in the hope that through numbing repetition some demand for justice or truth would be heard, like thousands of drops of water over millions of years finally opening a hole or creating a woderful natural sculpture.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">Because Twitter allows the expression of ideas to many who have felt or do feel they don&#8217;t or have not had a voice; because, as it was common to say a few years ago, it gives the impression of &#8220;levelling the playing field&#8221;, Tweets-as-Ends-in-Themselves are often used to tackle grievances, to shout back, to face an establishment perceived to be opaque, non-horizontal, unfair, violent, etc. One does not have to go back to the so-called &#8216;Arab Spring&#8217; to think of Twitter as a platform perceived o be as giving voice to the &#8216;oppressed&#8217;. As many activists of endless causes have experienced (particularly feminists), Twitter is also a platform that can host verbal and physical aggression. Twitter is hence not a neutral platform (you know this already too), but it seems to be defined by its ability to broadcast dissatisfaction, grievance, and injustice, and yes, also hate, resentment, ignorance, etc.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">Lately, perhaps because I follow a considerable number of colleagues based in the United States, my Twitter feed has seen a continuous flow of Tweets expressing political opinions of all sorts about very important &#8220;real life&#8221; events. [I particularly refer to the US because this post is partly inspired by Tweets by fellow scholars about the tragic shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, and events that followed]. This is not surprising, as that&#8217;s what Twitter, in a way, does: it enables the broadcasting of opinions. The platform itself depends on the speed and easiness with which opinions can be published. A Tweet is a Tweet is a Tweet: it is done quickly and often without thinking too much about it. Once one is within Twitter, it can be easy to forget &#8220;there is a world out there&#8221;. Believe me, I am not a technophobe and neither do I believe that what happens online does not happen &#8220;in real life&#8221;.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">But because Twitter is, in a way, all about discourse, it can be easy to forget the dimensions of things. Suddenly a Twitter &#8220;issue&#8221; becomes &#8220;larger than life&#8221;. Paradoxically, it can also, through repetition, erode its rightful relevance and gravity. Sometimes standing away from Twitter for a few minutes can be enough to realise that that &#8220;issue&#8221; (say, an argument between tweeters) was not as important as it seemed. And there are many, many issues which, undoubtedly, are of the highest order of importance, politically, economically, socially, for Twitter and for those who don&#8217;t use Twitter. Issues affecting the world around us. But this does not mean that if it&#8217;s not on Twitter it&#8217;s not important. Likewise, if someone you follow on Twitter does not tweet about a certain issue considered important it does not mean that person or organisation does not care about said issue.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">Some of the issues concerning colleagues in the United States (as are issues concerning colleagues in other countries) are expressions of larger problems shared around the world. In my perception, sometimes it looks like some colleagues in the United States forget they are being read by colleagues in other countries, and appear to demand from all their followers a kind of engagement with local events they themselves do not practice for issues outside their own country. Every important situation in the world deserves attention, from Ferguson to the Ebola outbreak to the ISIS conflict and Gaza, from the post-conflict in Colombia to the drug war in Mexico and the situation in Ukraine. There are lots of important issues happening in the world, at both international and hyper-local level, both privately and publicly, at all scales. Twitter cannot be the ruler with which some want to measure their colleagues&#8217; degree of political engagement with the issues that matter in the world. If I were to tweet about <em>every<\/em> issue that matters to me, everyone I know would surely, and with reason, stop following me right away. (Not necessarily because of the <em>quality<\/em> of the causes, but their quantity!).<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">All the paragraphs above are a long introduction for me to attempt to say that though I am and have been a great promoter of Twitter for scholarly use, I have found &#8220;the reign of opinion&#8221; on Twitter very upsetting. This &#8220;reign of opinion&#8221; for me is expressed by a politics of s\/he who shouts the loudest (or does the most RTs) about a certain issue. I think it is time we admit that there are thousands of important causes in the world, and that though what we tweet about might say things about who we are, what we don&#8217;t tweet about<em> does not necessarily<\/em> say things about who we are or we are not, or about what causes we support or not. Particularly as academics using Twitter for mostly scholarly purposes,<strong> how would our feeds look like if we incessantly tweeted about all the important issues we believe it is important to speak of? <\/strong>Would we have time to do anything else? Is that something we would really want to do? How successful or effective would it be? Who would be able to do it?<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">When colleagues tweet quick generalisations about groups of people (paradoxically, often with the intention of denouncing unfair generalisations about other groups of people), the effects can be divisive. There are ways of expressing opinions that can be divisive and counterproductive. You may think that a certain issue is of the uttermost importance, and you may think that the best way to act politically is\u00a0 to create awareness about that issue is by tweeting your opinions about it. Fair enough. However, tweeting that colleagues <em>should<\/em> either<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">a) tweet about a particular issue as you do about it or else or<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">b) don&#8217;t tweet at all about it because in your opinion they are not entitled to tweet about it as you are<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">then the contribution of that tweet is a negative one, creating further divisions and passing subjective summary judgments on potentially large groups of real people you might or not know (well or not) in real life.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">Twitter is, indeed, an important channel for academics to perform public intellectual work. As Edward Said put it in one of his 1993 BBC Reith Lectures,<\/p>\n<blockquote><p>&#8220;the intellectual is supposed to be heard from, and in practice ought to be stirring up debate and, if possible, controversy. But the alternatives are not total quiescence or total rebelliousness.&#8221;<\/p><\/blockquote>\n<p>[<a href=\"http:\/\/downloads.bbc.co.uk\/rmhttp\/radio4\/transcripts\/1993_reith4.pdf\" target=\"_blank\">PDF<\/a>]<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">If to you it does not seem like I am tweeting enough about an issue, that does not mean I am being politically inactive about that issue. It is very strange this would have to be pointed out, but <strong>there are still several ways in which one can be politically active without having to tweet about it<\/strong>. It is particularly troublesome that academics concerned with the exclusion of others would also, I&#8217;d like to think inadvertently, become vocal advocates of exclusionary measures by being judgemental on Twitter about the [perceived lack of] political engagement of their colleagues on Twitter. On Twitter, silence does not mean &#8220;total quiescence&#8221;. It might just mean a conscious, sensitive public awareness of time, resources and readership.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">Personally, though it is hard, I am trying to moderate my engagement with Twitter as a &#8220;place&#8221;. In the past, I have resisted critiques of Twitter as an &#8220;echo chamber&#8221;, as I still believe Twitter can be an excellent means to widen public participation for Higher Education projects. However, once one belongs to different professional and social networks within Twitter itself, it can be easy to experience this feeling of it being some closed chamber where resentment and judgemental microagressions from people we don&#8217;t even know well or who don&#8217;t know us at all bounce up and down, reverberating angrily, chaotically and noisily. This is not always a case of &#8220;filter failure&#8221;, as filtering is not as simple as those unfolllowed might take it personally. Rather than filtering, it might be a question of distance. If you are too close to the bark, you might not see the whole tree; let alone the whole forest.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:justify;\">Much in Twitter is about context and much more is about the multiplicity of possible interpretations. Some reactions to what we write are not intentional. Other reactions, however, are definitely intentional. Personally, I&#8217;d like to suggest that when it comes to politics, or definitions (who does what, who is who or what, etc.), being as aware as we can of difference is important. It is possible for Twitter to be much more than a chamber of opinions and judgements. Unless you get paid to tweet about everything and anything, you cannot fight all the battles on Twitter. If you are convinced that a certain issue is worth fighting for, do your thing. At the end of the day, work is one of the best expressions of conviction.<\/p>\n",
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            "title": "I am a hero, and so is Anita Sarkeesian.",
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            "content": "<p>A few weeks ago, I wrote <a title=\"a rambling post\" href=\"http:\/\/roykclaflin.wordpress.com\/2013\/04\/29\/i-foolishly-ask-if-video-games-are-art-and-then-i-even-more-foolishly-attempt-to-answer\/\" target=\"_blank\">a rambling post<\/a> on whether or not video games are art. Someone linked to this post on Reddit, which drove the hit counter on my site to record-setting numbers. The WordPress stat-tracking tools indicated that less than one percent of the people who viewed that post bothered to click on anything else on my site. Couldn&#8217;t even look at my &#8216;About&#8217; page. It&#8217;s a damn shame. I checked out the comments on Reddit, and quickly determined that most of those people did not read my post, and were simply commenting on the title alone (which wasn&#8217;t, on Reddit, my title at all, but the creation of whoever linked to my post). Some of the comments were amusing, but none of it seemed to be terribly profound. One guy claimed to have a &#8220;comprehensive&#8221; definition of art (which, I assume, he now keeps in a notebook on the shelf next to the album with all his bigfoot and UFO photos). I stopped reading the comments after the first dozen or so; almost none of it had anything to do with me anyway.<\/p>\n<p>But I have to wonder: Why, after so many hits on my blog, did only one person reply in the &#8216;comments&#8217; section of my &#8220;Are Video Games Art&#8221; post?<\/p>\n<p>It&#8217;s probably because the comments section on my blog does not allow anonymity.<\/p>\n<p>My post wasn&#8217;t particularly earth-shattering or controversial, but I was hoping for more of a discussion than I got. Granted, it got some attention on Reddit, but I&#8217;m really not interested in what anyone says when they insist on saying it under the protection of anonymity. I know that even under the best circumstances, there&#8217;s no way of knowing if anyone is who they say they are on the Internet. But you can get close. I put my name on my blog. My picture is on my <a title=\"Twitter\" href=\"https:\/\/twitter.com\/RoyClaflin\" target=\"_blank\">Twitter<\/a> profile. I expressed my opinion, and I did it openly. I didn&#8217;t use a throwaway username (you don\u2019t even need an email address to use Reddit). I had, for the first time since starting my blog, some serious traffic moving through, and all it got me was one, lonely comment. That&#8217;s really sad, compared to the number of (albeit mostly unrelated) comments made on the trash-heap that is Reddit.<\/p>\n<p>So maybe I&#8217;m just not interesting enough. I&#8217;m fully prepared to accept that. But I suspect that the problem is that none of those Redditors were willing to break their anonymity to post on my blog, or even to send me an email. The Internet is becoming a crowded, ugly place. Anyone can post anonymously on sites like Reddit and YouTube, hiding behind fake usernames and indulging in the pseudo-courage that could only be afforded by a fake identity.<\/p>\n<p>And if no one knows who you are, why not be an asshole?<\/p>\n<p>For me, posting as myself is kind of a big deal. I used to have a fake Twitter account, but I never engaged in what they&#8217;re calling &#8216;trolling.&#8217; I was just too chicken to speak up. Things are different now. I&#8217;ve managed to get past my anxieties, and I&#8217;m not as afraid to speak my mind.<\/p>\n<p>Because of that, and in deference to all the nastiness on the Internet, I think it&#8217;s important to recognize true bravery when I see it.<\/p>\n<span class='embed-youtube' style='text-align:center; display: block;'><\/iframe><\/span>\n<p>When I first heard about Anita Sarkeesian, her first &#8220;Tropes Vs Women&#8221; video was already live. I&#8217;d missed her Kickstarter, which I likely would&#8217;ve backed. I watched some of her other <a title=\"Feminist Frequency\" href=\"http:\/\/www.youtube.com\/user\/feministfrequency\" target=\"_blank\">Feminist Frequency <\/a>videos, and I really liked what she had to say. I think there&#8217;s plenty of room for discussion on this topic, and certainly plenty of room for improvement on the part of game developers (seriously, the whole &#8216;damsel in distress&#8217; thing was getting tired long before Ms. Sarkeesian hit &#8216;record&#8217; on her camera). I was happy to see the project getting so much attention, even if the attention was not entirely positive (any publicity is good publicity, so they say). I read about the flak she&#8217;d taken for some of her viewpoints, and actually saw some of the shit people were saying. It was nasty stuff, and almost all of it anonymous. People would later take issue with her disabling the comments on her YouTube videos, claiming she was stubbornly refusing to foster discussion (one person called it &#8216;discourse&#8217;) on YouTube.<\/p>\n<p>Really? Discussion on YouTube?<\/p>\n<span class='embed-youtube' style='text-align:center; display: block;'><\/iframe><\/span>\n<p>Why wouldn&#8217;t she disable the comments? There&#8217;s really only so much hostility one person can take. Besides, it&#8217;s freaking YouTube, the troll&#8217;s haven, the place where anyone can sling all the racial and sexual and homophobic epithets they want without fear of consequence. It&#8217;s not exactly known as a forum for intelligent discussion. Her latest video was taken down shortly after going live, apparently the work of those same practitioners of intelligent discussion hitting the &#8220;flag as inappropriate&#8221; button. I watched the video. There was nothing inappropriate about it. This was a blatant attack by people who simply didn&#8217;t agree with her. And they did it without fear of consequence, under the protection of anonymity.<\/p>\n<p>Ms. Sarkeesian&#8217;s name is on those videos. Her face is front-and-center. She&#8217;s expressing her opinions, and she&#8217;s doing it openly, in spite of all the hate being thrown at her by the turds of the Internet underworld. I like what she&#8217;s doing, and will continue to support her. At the moment, my own opinions and musings are not nearly as polarizing and controversial as hers, but when I have something truly important to say, I hope I can show as much grit as she does when I do it.<\/p>\n<p>And maybe one day, the collective maturity and intelligence of Internet users will be at such a level that public, open discussion would be possible on a site like YouTube. I doubt it, but it&#8217;s nice to dream.<\/p>\n",
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            "title": "&#8216;Mango, Mango!&#8217; A Family, a Fruit Stand, and Survival on $4.50 a Day",
            "URL": "http:\/\/blog.longreads.com\/2014\/08\/26\/mango-mango-a-family-a-fruit-stand-and-survival-on-4-50-a-day\/",
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            "content": "<p><em><a href=\"http:\/\/www.uwosh.edu\/english\/directory\/haynes-douglas\">Douglas Haynes<\/a> | <a href=\"http:\/\/www.orionmagazine.org\/\">Orion<\/a> | Summer 2014 | 22 minutes (5,391 words)<\/em><\/p>\n<p><!-- Begin Publisher Intro --><\/p>\n<div class=\"publisher-intro\"><a href=\"http:\/\/www.orionmagazine.org\/\"><img class=\"publisher-intro-cover\" src=\"https:\/\/longreadsblog.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/mj-ja14_cov1sub600.jpg?w=480\" alt=\"\" \/><\/a><span class=\"publisher-intro-text\"><span class=\"h-two\">Orion<\/span>This Longreads Exclusive comes from the latest issue of <a href=\"http:\/\/www.orionmagazine.org\/\">Orion magazine<\/a>\u2014<a href=\"https:\/\/subscribe.pcspublink.com\/Sub\/Subscribeform2.aspx?t=JBP8&amp;p=ORIN\">subscribe to the magazine<\/a> or <a href=\"https:\/\/secure.commonground.convio.com\/orion\/s14e1\/\">donate<\/a> for more great stories like this.<br \/>\n<a class=\"sm-button-red\" href=\"http:\/\/orionmagazine.org\/freetrial\">Get a free trial issue<\/a><\/span><\/div>\n<p><!-- End Publisher Intro --><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><a class=\"sm-button\" href=\"https:\/\/longreadsblog.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/mango-mango-a-family-a-fruit-stand-a-douglas-haynes.mobi\">Download .mobi (Kindle)<\/a> <a class=\"sm-button\" href=\"https:\/\/longreadsblog.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/mango-mango-a-family-a-fruit-stand-a-douglas-haynes.epub\">Download .epub (iBooks)<\/a><\/p>\n<p>&nbsp;<\/p>\n<h2><em>Morning<\/em><\/h2>\n<p>\u201cIt\u2019s like this here every day,\u201d Dayani Baldelomar Bustos tells me as her dark eyes scan the packed alley for an opening. People carrying baskets of produce on their heads press against our backs.<\/p>\n<p>It\u2019s seven a.m., and we\u2019re stuck behind a cart hauled by a man named Carlos, whom Dayani has hired to bring fifty pounds of mangos, a crate of bananas, and several watermelons to her fruit and drink stand in Managua\u2019s Mercado Oriental. Behind the cart\u2019s metal tow bar, Carlos tugs and twists his body, but he can\u2019t turn straight into the bottleneck of pedestrians because the alley is too tight with vendors on both sides. The cart blocks the entire alley. Impatient whistles pierce the heavy air.<\/p>\n<p>Occasionally, an unseen force behind us ripples through the crowd and pushes us forward. I almost step on a silver-haired woman stooped by her basket, crying out, \u201cMango, mango, mango!\u201d<\/p>\n<p>Just when Carlos can finally inch the cart ahead, it catches on a vendor\u2019s basket on the ground. He says nothing; he does this every morning. After a few minutes of fierce maneuvering, Carlos frees the cart, and Dayani and I rush ahead of him to set up her stand before he arrives with the fruit.<\/p>\n<p>Having accompanied Dayani many times in the market over the past six years, I\u2019ve learned that it\u2019s impossible to talk while she\u2019s leading me through the maze of stalls and carts. I struggle to keep up with her, despite the fact that she\u2019s wearing high-heeled, open-toed sandals and I\u2019m wearing sneakers.<\/p>\n<p>As we sidestep puddles and potholes, we pass piles of cell-phone cases, stacks of bras and panties, hanging pig heads, and women waving red pompoms over slabs of raw meat to ward off swarming flies. A stew of smells hangs in the half-covered alleys: wood smoke, soapy graywater, frying pork skins, rotting cabbage. We pass a man wearing a surgical mask sorting through a small mountain of wood charcoal. Video game bleeps and the sound of fingers pounding plastic buttons emanate from an arcade.<\/p>\n<p>You can buy everything in the Oriental, from a pound of rice to the service of a prostitute to a pet iguana. If it\u2019s not for sale there, Nicaraguans say, then you can\u2019t buy it anywhere. They say to leave your jewelry and phone at home, though. The market is supposedly Nicaragua\u2019s most dangerous place.<\/p>\n<p>It\u2019s also the largest commercial center in Central America. Fifty-three Walmart Supercenters would fit inside its roughly 225 acres. Seventy-some streets wind and intersect through it with no apparent order. No signs help you navigate. In many alleys, you can\u2019t see the sky. Nicaraguan newspapers regularly refer to the Oriental as a \u201clabyrinth\u201d and a \u201cmonster.\u201d Every day, the market pulses with around eighty thousand customers and fifty thousand workers, many of them self-employed like Dayani and Carlos.<\/p>\n<p><a href=\"https:\/\/longreadsblog.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/dayani.jpg\"><img class=\"alignnone wp-image-10658 size-large\" src=\"https:\/\/longreadsblog.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/dayani.jpg?w=480&#038;h=421\" alt=\"dayani\"   \/><\/a><span class=\"credit\">Photos by Elizabeth Kay<\/span><\/p>\n<p>[pullquote align=\"center\"]It\u2019s the largest commercial center in Central America. 53 Walmart Supercenters would fit inside its 225 acres.[\/pullquote]<\/p>\n<p>Dayani, thirty-three, has sold fruit and drinks from a wooden table by a bus stop for about eleven years. Before that, she worked as an ambulatory vendor, beginning at age six, when her mother sent her out to sell tortillas and cornbread door-to-door after school to help the family make a living. This was in the countryside, before she moved to Managua when she was nine and began selling fruit from a basket on her head, walking miles through the city every day.<\/p>\n<p>Dayani has only held a wage-paying job once, as a twenty-one-year-old, when she cut fabric for nine months in a Korean-owned sweatshop. She worked twelve to fifteen hours a day and earned the equivalent of forty to seventy-five dollars a month, depending on how much overtime she worked. She never knew when the boss would let her go home. Her mother watched Dayani\u2019s three young children six days a week. \u201cThe two youngest ones didn\u2019t know me,\u201d she told me. \u201cWhen I wanted to hold them, they didn\u2019t want me.\u201d<\/p>\n<p>So Dayani quit her job and started making plantain chips in her parents\u2019 house to sell on the streets. About a year later, she borrowed sixty-five dollars from a microfinance nonprofit called Pro Mujer to start her fruit and drink stand. Now, she earns roughly twice as much as she did working on-the-books in the sweatshop. But her income still puts her and her sons\u2014along with roughly 43 percent of Nicaraguans\u2014below Nicaragua\u2019s poverty line of two dollars a day.<\/p>\n<p>Dayani\u2019s stand occupies a prime spot in the Oriental, a place known as El Gancho de Caminos (The Roads\u2019 Hook), where five Managua arteries meet in front of an entrance to the crammed inner market. \u201cIf chaos had a face, it would be el gancho de caminos,\u201d writes Nicaraguan journalist G\u00e9nesis Hern\u00e1ndez N\u00fa\u00f1ez. To an outsider, the seemingly unpredictable swirl of people, buses, taxis, and carts looks forbidding. But for Dayani and the hundreds of others who work there, El Gancho de Caminos embodies opportunity.<\/p>\n<p>At Dayani\u2019s vending spot, we meet a man she had hired to haul a cart full of her supplies and table. The cart is too heavy for her to pull the quarter mile from the lot where she pays ten c\u00f3rdobas a night\u2014about forty cents\u2014to store it. Dayani unties a tarp draped over the cart and sets up her rough-hewn wooden table. She erects a makeshift cloth and plastic umbrella above it for shade.<\/p>\n<p>Dozens of other stands extend on both sides of Dayani\u2019s, parallel to the busy bus stop. Behind the stands, garbage and rubble collect at the base of a high, concrete wall enclosing a police station. The words se prohibe orinarse (\u201curinating is prohibited\u201d) are painted on the wall in large white letters. This doesn\u2019t stop men from ambling up against the wall and unzipping their pants.<\/p>\n<p>In the parking lot of a gas station across the road, the cell-phone company Movistar blasts promotions through a pair of giant speakers in the back of a minivan, interspersed with salsa hits, REM\u2019s \u201cLosing My Religion,\u201d and 50 Cent\u2019s \u201cIn da Club.\u201d A red pickup truck loaded with flip-flops from Panama blares the refrain \u201cGrab them! Grab them! Twenty-five for flip-flops! Twenty-five!\u201d Buses roar past, belching black exhaust. When they stop to let passengers on and off, vendors with sacks on their shoulders full of half-liter plastic bags of water surround the buses, shouting, \u201c<em>Agua! Agua! Agua!<\/em>\u201d<\/p>\n<p>After setting up her table, Dayani fills plastic Coleman coolers with ice, glass bottles of soda, beer cans, and plastic bags of juice and water. Carlos arrives with the fruit, and Dayani pays him about a dollar. She piles a mound of bananas in a basket perched on a tower of empty soda bottle crates. The case of two hundred bananas cost her $7.20; if she sells every banana, she will profit roughly $1.70.<\/p>\n<p>By eight-thirty a.m., the stand is set up, and Dayani slips her pink-painted toes out of her heeled sandals into flip-flops, which she keeps in the cart with her supplies. She takes a white apron embroidered with a frilly, pink heart out of her purse and puts it on over her blue blouse and tight, flared jeans. Most of the female vendors in the market wear an apron with a deep pocket to keep bills and coins in. They also usually keep their hair pulled back in a tight bun to keep it out of their faces as they work.[pullquote]If she sells every banana, she will profit roughly $1.70.[\/pullquote]<\/p>\n<p>As she slices a watermelon and puts halved plastic baggies dipped in water over the slices to keep flies off, Dayani asks me if I could do what she does every day.<\/p>\n<p>\u201cNo. For one thing, I\u2019m not as strong as you,\u201d I say, thinking of her twelve-hour days on her feet in the tropical heat.<\/p>\n<p>\u201cThis work is very hard,\u201d Dayani says. \u201cI don\u2019t want my kids to have to do it. That\u2019s why I tell them they need to study. You said I\u2019m strong. Right now I am. But I\u2019m not going to be this strong forever and won\u2019t be able to do this work. I want my children to have something better.\u201d<\/p>\n<p>Dayani\u2019s sons\u2014Edwin, fourteen, and Gabriel, thirteen\u2014help their mother with her business when they\u2019re not in school. Her first son, Jader, died of leukemia in 2009 at age twelve. Both of her sons\u2019 fathers have left her. Dayani supports her children on the roughly $4.50 a day she makes in the market.<\/p>\n<p>\u201cEnough for food,\u201d she says. A pound of rice costs around forty cents, and a pound of red beans about fifty cents. The remainder of Dayani\u2019s daily income typically goes for fruit and a few vegetables, cooking oil, sugar, soap, and, if she\u2019s feeling flush, some cheese, which costs almost two dollars a pound. When the prices of these items and the fruit she sells rise, as they often do because of Nicaragua\u2019s increasingly extreme weather, both Dayani\u2019s income and her buying power shrink. She tries to adjust by charging more at her stand, but then sales inevitably decline.<\/p>\n<p>[pullquote align=\"center\"]You said I\u2019m strong. Right now I am. But I\u2019m not going to be this strong forever and won\u2019t be able to do this work.[\/pullquote]<\/p>\n<p>A man stops to buy a slice of watermelon and comments on the price of it (about thirty cents). Dayani smiles\u2014the gold rims around her front teeth gleaming\u2014and explains that the price of watermelon has gone up recently, so she has to charge more. She removes the plastic for him and strews a pinch of salt over the melon. After he leaves, she tells me he\u2019s a regular client so she knows what he wants without asking.<\/p>\n<p>\u201cMy work requires creativity, organization, and good math skills,\u201d she says. \u201cI have to know which fruit is in season, how much each fruit is going to cost during different seasons, and how much I can charge for it.\u201d<\/p>\n<p>Though Dayani\u2019s business may appear improvised, her skills and concerns are similar to any entrepreneur\u2019s. Augusto Rivera, the general manager of the Mercado Oriental, told me in August 2012 that he sees unlicensed street vendors like Dayani as \u201csmall businesspeople\u201d engaged in \u201ca form of earning a living, and above all honorably.\u201d<\/p>\n<p>In the early 1970s, British anthropologist Keith Hart coined the term \u201cinformal economy\u201d to describe the unregulated trade of street vendors in Accra, Ghana. Since then, sociologists and economists have debated definitions of the term and proposed others: shadow economy, extra-legal, illegal, underground economy, system D. Most agree, though, that participants in the informal economy share at least some of the following characteristics: they are unregistered, unregulated, untaxed, and\/or unprotected by governments. They also comprise a rising percentage of the world\u2019s workforce.<\/p>\n<p>The vast majority of workers in the Mercado Oriental receive their salary under the table, pay no taxes, and get no government social security, and about a quarter of the vendors are unlicensed. They represent a small portion of the 70 percent of Nicaraguan workers who earn a living in the informal economy. These Nicaraguans make up an even smaller fraction of the almost 1.8 billion people laboring off-the-books worldwide. By 2020, two out of every three workers on the planet will be informally employed, according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.<\/p>\n<p>At the same time, the world\u2019s population is rapidly urbanizing. In the past decade, the number of people living in cities surpassed the number living in rural areas for the first time, and the count of city dwellers is forecast to nearly double by 2050, reaching 6.3 billion. Nicaragua\u2019s demographics reflect this trend. Nearly a quarter of its growing population now crowds Managua, the capital, and migrants continue arriving there from the impoverished countryside. One of their first stops\u2014to find work, a place to sleep, or cheap food\u2014is often the Mercado Oriental.<\/p>\n<p>&nbsp;<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\">* * *<\/p>\n<p>&nbsp;<\/p>\n<h2><em>Midday<\/em><\/h2>\n<p>At lunchtime, Dayani leaves a neighboring vendor in charge of her stand and leads me deeper into the market to her parents\u2019 home. We wind through row after row of stalls and a covered hall where many of the estimated 100,000 meals purchased daily in the market are cooked and served.<\/p>\n<p>\u201cWe\u2019re almost there,\u201d Dayani reassures me. Though I\u2019ve been to her parents\u2019 home many times, I\u2019d be hard-pressed to find it on my own. We slip between metal walls over a cement channel brimming with graywater and turn down a damp alley into a warren of dark hovels. In a sheet-metal shack open on one side, Dayani\u2019s father, C\u00e9sar Baldelomar Mercado, stands shirtless over a cast-iron vat of boiling oil. A TV behind him flickers with cartoons, which two small boys watch from a bed supported by stacked soda bottle crates.<\/p>\n<p>The oil burbles and pops. Sweat glosses C\u00e9sar\u2019s temples beneath a backward, khaki baseball cap half covering a mop of black hair. He\u2019s waiting for the oil \u201cto be silent,\u201d which indicates the right temperature for frying thinly sliced plantains into <em>platanitos<\/em>.<\/p>\n<p>Every day, C\u00e9sar fries plantains and cassava with two or three of his sons and his daughter, Johana. They sell the chips, which they bag and carry on metal rings, in and around the Mercado Oriental every afternoon. One bag of chips sells for twenty-five cents. On a good day, each of them profits about five dollars. The good days are few and far between, and even five dollars spread among children and spouses amounts to just enough to eat well three times a day.<\/p>\n<p><img class=\"alignnone size-large wp-image-10661\" src=\"https:\/\/longreadsblog.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/cesar-in-the-mercado-oriental.jpg?w=480&#038;h=317\" alt=\"Cesar in the Mercado Oriental\"   \/><\/p>\n<p>Smoke billows from a concrete wood stove below the vat and rises against one of the house\u2019s sheet-metal walls, blackened with soot. Some of the smoke leaves through a crack between the wall and the ceiling. The rest spreads in a haze over the room and into the adjoining alley. The muddy alley, about four feet wide, is crowded with sacks of plantains and cassava and baskets lined with newspapers, ready to be filled with chips. A pile of brown cassava peels rises to the bare ankles of C\u00e9sar\u2019s wife, Carmen, who sits peeling the long tubers on a white plastic chair.<\/p>\n<p>Carmen, sixty-two, and C\u00e9sar, fifty-eight, are among the fifteen to twenty thousand people believed to be living in the market. Like many families from the mountains south of Managua, they moved there in stages. About twenty-five years ago, Carmen began selling firewood in the market that C\u00e9sar, her two oldest sons, and Dayani gathered on the slopes of the Masaya volcano near their home. Carmen would leave her house in the dark with three bundles of firewood to catch a bus to Managua at two a.m. She would arrive in the market at four a.m. and sell the firewood in the notoriously dangerous Callej\u00f3n de la Muerte (Alley of Death), a hidden passage teeming with thieves and prostitutes.<\/p>\n<p>Not long after Carmen started selling firewood, a friend of hers gave her the idea to buy a large quantity of fruit in the middle of the market with the money she made selling firewood, then resell the fruit in an area where there were no vendors. After selling her firewood, Carmen would buy oranges, tangerines, and bananas and sell them in the afternoon in El Gancho de Caminos. Over time she saw that she made more money selling fruit than firewood and decided it wasn\u2019t worth it to keep returning to the country every night. She, along with C\u00e9sar and the couple\u2019s oldest and youngest children, came to live in the market. Dayani remained at home and quit school, having finished third grade, to take care of four of her younger siblings. Her parents returned every weekend to bring the children food for the week. After a year, they brought the whole family of nine to live in the market.\u00a0[pullquote align=\"left\"]After a year, they brought the whole family of nine to live in the market.[\/pullquote]<\/p>\n<p>There, the family slept on a sidewalk walled in with cardboard, plastic, and bed sheets under the eaves of a pool hall. The youngest, Johana, slept in a fruit basket. The family woke before dawn to prepare for the day because the pool hall owner arrived early to clean his business. By six in the morning, they were back out on the street. This lasted about two years, until officials from COMMEMA, Managua\u2019s municipal market corporation, discovered the family\u2019s living situation.<\/p>\n<p>According to Dayani, \u201cThey told my mother that she couldn\u2019t be there because it was the entrance of the pool hall. So they relocated her to where she now has her shack. But for her this was wonderful because she came to have a place to be, to sleep peacefully.\u201d<\/p>\n<p>COMMEMA granted Carmen and C\u00e9sar a spot just outside of the market in an empty wasteland of rubble from the earthquake that destroyed central Managua in December 1972. They built a shack with scraps of metal and lived alone in the ruins, but for the young men who gathered there to do drugs behind a concrete wall. In time, other families arrived. The market continued to grow in every direction and eventually surrounded Carmen and C\u00e9sar\u2019s home.<\/p>\n<p>\u201cI won\u2019t leave my market,\u201d Carmen told me. \u201cI feel happy, happy because, look, if I want to eat soup, I make it fast. I go out and buy corn meal, peppers, onion, tomato, and done.\u201d<\/p>\n<p>Carmen grew up eating rice and beans, foods that Nicaragua\u2019s rural poor typically eat three times a day and often grow themselves. When she moved to the market as an adult, she was suddenly surrounded by all kinds of food and even had cash in her pocket. Now, like a growing number of Nicaraguan women in her generation who were raised in extreme poverty, Carmen has diabetes. After not seeing her for a year, I was struck by how difficult it was for her to rise from her chair to greet me.<\/p>\n<p>Still, Carmen works every day, buying sacks of wholesale plantains and cassava trucked in from the countryside, peeling them, and bagging the chips for C\u00e9sar and their sons to sell. She also babysits her daughter Teresa\u2019s two sons while Teresa sells water and soft drinks from a shopping cart in the market. Virtually all of the family works in the market. As market manager Augusto Rivera told me, \u201cThere are generations here. So the mother came, the kids grew up, now the grandkids are here. The families grow, and they\u2019ve stayed here, working.\u201d<\/p>\n<p>Whether C\u00e9sar and Carmen\u2019s children and grandchildren will stay remains to be seen. Their youngest son, Juan, twenty-seven, took private English classes on Sundays for more than two years, and he is always eager to practice when I see him. While he\u2019s waiting with his father to fry plantains, he tells me that he has graduated from the English academy but needs to improve his accent, because he wants to work in a call center.<\/p>\n<p>\u201cTo work in a call center, they have to believe you are an American,\u201d he says.<\/p>\n<p>When the oil reaches the right temperature for frying, Juan grabs a wooden grater in one hand and a peeled plantain in the other. He deftly slices each fruit lengthwise into the vat of oil, finishing half a dozen plantains faster than I can slice one. After a couple of minutes, when the slices are fried crisp, C\u00e9sar pulls two wood-handled sieves fashioned from china bowls from the wall and scoops the chips from the oil. He gently shakes the oil from the chips, then flips them into the newspaper-lined baskets.<\/p>\n<p>Watching this home business from my seat on a plank in the alley, I find myself thinking this family lives a world apart from the global economic network of factories, shipping containers, and stock markets. Yet the money that passes through their hands emanates from all over Central America. And the goods being sold around them come from all over the world: bales of secondhand t-shirts imported from the U.S., mounds of Nissan car parts from Japan, towers of Acros stoves made in Mexico, glass cases full of Finnish Nokia phones\u2014not to mention all of the raw materials in each of these products and their far-flung origins.<\/p>\n<p>According to Augusto Rivera, sales in the Mercado Oriental amount to at least $100 million a month, with every shopper spending, on average, between sixteen and twenty-eight dollars per visit. \u201cIt\u2019s a market that supplies practically the whole country. People come here from all of the regions to buy. People come from Costa Rica, Honduras, El Salvador,\u201d Rivera told me.<\/p>\n<p>The Oriental is popular for the same reason Walmart is popular: you can buy everything cheaper there than anywhere else. But in the market, poverty and pollution aren\u2019t concealed by pressed blue Walmart vests and sparkling floors. The Oriental provides a far more authentic picture of the inequality and ecological costs associated with international commerce.<\/p>\n<p>[pullquote align=\"center\"]The Oriental is popular for the same reason Walmart is popular: you can buy everything cheaper there than anywhere else.[\/pullquote]<\/p>\n<p><em>\u00a0<\/em><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\">* * *<\/p>\n<p><em>\u00a0<\/em><\/p>\n<h2><em>Afternoon<\/em><\/h2>\n<p>After lunch, the overhead sun on Dayani\u2019s umbrella makes her stand swelter. Sales ebb. Dust clouds roll over the rows of vendors, and a <em>malinche<\/em> tree loaded with scarlet blossoms shivers above the roof of the gas station across the road. Plastic bags rise from the gutter, swirling like Hitchcock\u2019s birds around the heads of people waiting for buses.<\/p>\n<p>Garbage cans are almost nonexistent in the market. Dayani puts all of her trash in a plastic crate under her table, then dumps it in the gutter at the end of the day. So do the other vendors. To carry away all of this garbage, the market corporation hires sixty street sweepers who walk the market early every morning and fill handcarts with the previous day\u2019s trash. The sweepers then transfer the waste to the market\u2019s three garbage trucks. In all, twenty-five to thirty garbage trucks full of trash are removed from the Oriental every day.<\/p>\n<p>I met a street sweeper once when he stopped to talk with Carmen and Johana outside their shack. He wore a blue shirt that said COMMEMA above the left breast pocket, dirty blue jeans, and black rubber boots.<\/p>\n<p>He works from six a.m. to noon six days a week and makes $165 a month. \u201cIt\u2019s a hard job,\u201d he said. \u201cI clean up one area and come back in a little while, and it\u2019s full of trash again.\u201d He told me he has worked in the market more than twenty years. \u201cThe market was much smaller then. There were no stands at Gancho de Caminos. Over there, it was a normal barrio,\u201d he said, pointing to the south.<\/p>\n<p>The Oriental began on the outskirts of Managua after an earthquake leveled the city in 1931. By the 1940s, two covered vending halls were built, and by 1965\u2014as the city engulfed the market\u2014there were four. Thereafter, two catastrophes sparked the market\u2019s massive expansion. The 1972 earthquake killed at least six thousand people, flattened Managua\u2019s two other principal markets, and left as much as 50 percent of the city\u2019s workforce unemployed. Scrambling to survive, many Managuans set up businesses in and around the Oriental. By 1976, the market had grown to almost seventy acres of stalls, shops, diners, salons, arcades, bars, and warehouses.<\/p>\n<p>In the early 1990s, the market again experienced rapid growth, devouring adjoining neighborhoods. A series of neoliberal governments reduced and privatized public services under pressure from the International Monetary Fund and The World Bank, causing unemployment and underemployment in the city to reach over 60 percent. Former engineers, nurses, accountants, and teachers turned to running small businesses in the Oriental.<\/p>\n<p>\u201cThe market grew without planning, in a disorganized way,\u201d explained Augusto Rivera. For this reason, only 60 percent of the stalls and stores have running water and only about 40 percent have legal, safe electric connections. Thousands can\u2019t be reached by emergency vehicles. This poor infrastructure contributed to a major fire that destroyed twelve acres of the market in 2008. Several smaller fires have erupted since. To make the market less vulnerable to disasters, you would have to make it \u201cdisappear and make a new market,\u201d Rivera said.<\/p>\n<p>In his 2011 book <em>Stealth of Nations<\/em>, journalist Robert Neuwirth calls the informal economy \u201cSystem D\u201d in an effort to define it by what it is\u2014a viable economic alternative\u2014rather than what it\u2019s not. He appropriates this term from Francophone Africa and the Caribbean, where unlicensed entrepreneurship is called <em>l\u2019economie de la d\u00e9brouillardise<\/em>, or <em>Systeme D<\/em>.<\/p>\n<p>\u201cThe global economy may be contracting, but System D is providing jobs,\u201d Neuwirth writes. \u201cThere\u2019s no multinational, no Daddy Warbucks or Bill Gates, no government that can rival that level of job creation.\u201d<\/p>\n<p>Take the job of Orlando Ocampo. For nine years, this lanky thirty-four-year-old has worked at the bus stop in front of Dayani\u2019s stand calling out the numbers of buses for passengers. Each time a bus stops, the driver gives Orlando twenty cents.<\/p>\n<p>Managua\u2019s bus stops are unmarked, and the buses only have a small sign with the route number in the front window. In the crowd of vendors, pedestrians, and people waiting for buses, it can be hard to find the route you want. Orlando makes it easier.<\/p>\n<p>While stealing a moment\u2019s rest on a concrete block in the shade, Orlando tells me that he makes about $10.50 a day, more than most Nicaraguan police officers and teachers. Few professionals would work his hours, though. \u201cI work from six to six, six days a week. I rest on Sunday or sometimes take another job,\u201d Orlando explains. \u201cI\u2019m a mason and electrician. But those jobs aren\u2019t steady like this one. They come and they go.\u201d\u00a0[pullquote]Those jobs aren\u2019t steady like this one. They come and they go.[\/pullquote]<\/p>\n<p>He makes a point of telling me that he doesn\u2019t smoke or drink. \u201cIf you drink, your life goes down.\u201d In the market, it\u2019s common to see alcoholics passed out on the ground. Orlando points at my gray New Balance sneakers and asks me how much they cost. I tell him forty dollars, and he shakes his head. His own second-hand pair of gray New Balances, tearing in the seam between the upper and the sole, cost $10.50, a day\u2019s earnings.<\/p>\n<p>\u201cThey\u2019re good shoes, but yours are even better,\u201d he says, reaching out to rub the gray suede on my sneakers. Then he abruptly rises, shakes my hand, and returns to the street, shouting \u201c<em>La una, la una, la una<\/em>!\u201d<\/p>\n<p>I ask Dayani if it\u2019s true that Orlando doesn\u2019t drink. She says it is, and that he\u2019s trustworthy. In the market she\u2019s surrounded by people she trusts: the neighboring vendors who watch her stand when she has to run an errand, the cart men who haul her belongings and purchases, the wholesale fruit sellers she buys from, and even the thieves who leave her alone.<\/p>\n<p>What appears at first glance to be a chaotic, survival-of-the-fittest kind of place is really a multilayered, self-organizing community. People depend on personal relationships to get things done in the informal economy, services that would otherwise tend to be provided by the impersonal institutions and infrastructure of the formal economy. The social networks that arise in the market provide a sense of security.<\/p>\n<p>At the same time, Dayani\u2019s business is always insecure. Since she lacks a license, municipal authorities could force Dayani to move from her selling spot any day. The flip side of lacking tenure is that she can choose to move whenever she wants to. Because she is self-employed, she can show up to work or not. She can wander the streets selling through holiday crowds when there\u2019s an opportunity to make more money that way. The informal economy allows individuals to adapt and evolve with the conditions around them. The downsides are that Dayani has no paid sick leave, no paid vacation, no health insurance, no social security benefits, and no worker\u2019s compensation if she\u2019s injured on the job.<\/p>\n<p>When her son Jader was sick for five years with leukemia, Dayani\u2019s income dwindled. She was only able to work in short stints, going back and forth between the market and the free public hospital where Jader received treatment. While Jader\u2019s health deteriorated in a hospital with too few doctors and too little medicine, Dayani\u2019s business fell apart.<\/p>\n<p>Perhaps if Dayani had worked a wage-paying job with sick leave and private health insurance, Jader\u2019s illness wouldn\u2019t have pushed her family further into poverty. But few such jobs exist for a woman without a high school diploma. And since the 2008 financial crisis,\u00a0even Nicaraguans employed in the formal economy have seen their buying power decrease, because wages haven\u2019t kept up with the skyrocketing cost of living.<\/p>\n<p>In the global North, too, the formal economy has recently proven to be much less secure than previously thought. Millions have lost their jobs in the U.S. and Europe, creating a growing underclass of long-term unemployed people seeking ways to get by. In a widely cited 2011 study, economists Richard Cebula and Edgar L. Feige found \u201cstrong evidence\u201d that high unemployment is contributing to the expansion of untaxed economic activity in the U.S. The value of what Cebula and Feige call the underground economy\u2014which includes both licit and criminal activities\u2014has surged in recent years to an estimated $2 trillion.<\/p>\n<p>Meanwhile, formal sector jobs are becoming more temporary and insecure, with fewer benefits and increasingly poor working conditions. One-fifth of all U.S. jobs added since the end of the recession in June 2009 have been temporary, leading to a record number of 2.7 million temporary workers. People in the global North are being forced to recognize what laborers like Dayani already know: security comes from relationships close to home, and few are immune to the fragility of global markets. [pullquote align=\"center\"]People in the global North are being forced to recognize what laborers like Dayani already know: security comes from relationships close to home, and few are immune to the fragility of global markets.[\/pullquote]<\/p>\n<p>The Oriental\u2019s vendors may have found ways to survive with limited resources in constantly changing conditions, but their struggles point to the need for an economic system that promotes social equity and ecological responsibility. As Robert Neuwirth writes in <em>Stealth of Nations<\/em>, \u201cGiven its size, it makes no sense to talk of development, growth, sustainability, or globalization without reckoning with System D.\u201d In other words, making the labor and environmental practices of corporate monoliths such as Walmart more just and less harmful is not going to be enough to reverse the inequities and ecological devastation of the global economy. The Mercado Orientals of the world have to be considered, too.<\/p>\n<p>Making public marketplaces more just and sustainable means reducing poverty, improving infrastructure, and providing self-employed workers with greater social protection, better working environments, and access to resources for small business owners. With such support, vendors like Dayani and her family could focus on making their businesses more profitable and less vulnerable to personal and community crises. Creating more economic security throughout poor countries like Nicaragua could also help slow the unmanageable growth of markets like the Oriental.<\/p>\n<p>In Nicaragua, Augusto Rivera told me, the Sandinista government is \u201ctrying to provide development to the countryside in order to prevent emigration from the countryside to the city\u201d through microloans for small businesses, agricultural programs, creating export markets, and attracting foreign investment. These efforts have helped reduce extreme poverty in rural areas, but six out of every ten rural Nicaraguans still live on less than two dollars a day. When agricultural commodity prices fall or a crop fails due to weather, they often have little choice but to join the tide of emigrants from places like the mountain village where Dayani grew up.<\/p>\n<p>&nbsp;<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\">* * *<\/p>\n<p>&nbsp;<\/p>\n<h2><em>Evening<\/em><\/h2>\n<p>By four-thirty p.m., the market day is winding down. Dayani slices the last of her mangos to try to sell before heading home. Her son Gabriel, who came to the stand after he got out of school, puts unsold bottles of soda back in crates to store for the next day. His brother Edwin tips dark vinegar from a plastic bottle into a bag of sliced mangos, dashes them with salt, then hands the bag to a customer in exchange for a silver, five c\u00f3rdoba coin. As vendors dump their day\u2019s garbage into the gutter, a faint rotting-fruit smell blends with diesel fumes. At dusk, two bare incandescent bulbs come on above the blue and white Comex paint ad on the metal shack next to Dayani\u2019s stand.<\/p>\n<p>Dayani tells Gabriel to go home to feed the family\u2019s chickens, ducks, and dog and tells Edwin to help her clean up. I decide to catch a bus with Gabriel, which requires crossing rush hour traffic in El Gancho de Caminos with no stop sign or traffic light. We get halfway across the road and freeze between buses and taxis roaring by. Gabriel steps into oncoming traffic, holds out his hand, and a red taxi stops to let us through.<\/p>\n<p>Across the road, we pass furniture salesmen shuttering their stalls. In an empty lot, homeless people lay down cardboard to sleep on. Whistles and car horns pierce the twilight. We slosh through puddles, doll heads, peels, and lost shoes, joining the throngs of shoppers and vendors leaving the market. At dawn, the crowds will come pouring back in.<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\">* * *<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\"><em>Originally published in <a href=\"http:\/\/www.orionmagazine.org\/\">Orion, summer 2014<\/a>.\u00a0<\/em><\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:center;\">* * *<\/p>\n<p style=\"text-align:left;\"><em>Douglas Haynes&#8217;s\u00a0essays have appeared in <\/em><a href=\"http:\/\/www.vqronline.org\/essay\/lake-bottom-bottom?src=longreads\">Virginia Quarterly Review<\/a><em>, <\/em><a href=\"http:\/\/www.bostonreview.net\/douglas-haynes-nicaragua-climate-change?src=longreads\">Boston Review<\/a><em>, <\/em>North American Review<em>, and many other publications. He is currently writing a book about rural to urban migration and the reinvention of Managua, one of the world\u2019s most disaster-prone cities, and he teaches writing <a href=\"http:\/\/www.uwosh.edu\/english\/directory\/haynes-douglas\">at the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh<\/a>.<\/em><\/p>\n<p><span class=\"credit\">Illustration: <a href=\"http:\/\/kjellr.com\/\">Kjell Reigstad<\/a><\/span><\/p>\n",
            "excerpt": "<p>Douglas Haynes | Orion | Summer 2014 | 22 minutes (5,391 words) OrionThis Longreads Exclusive comes from the latest issue of Orion magazine\u2014subscribe to the magazine or donate for more great stories like this. Get a free trial issue Download &hellip; <a href=\"http:\/\/blog.longreads.com\/2014\/08\/26\/mango-mango-a-family-a-fruit-stand-and-survival-on-4-50-a-day\/\">Continue reading <span class=\"meta-nav\">&rarr;<\/span><\/a><\/p>\n",
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            "date": "2014-08-24T15:30:09-04:00",
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            "title": "The complete guide to swearing at work",
            "URL": "http:\/\/qz.com\/242637\/the-complete-guide-to-swearing-at-work\/",
            "short_URL": "http:\/\/wp.me\/p2G6tR-117v",
            "content": "<p>For those of us with a fondness for profanity, testing the bounds of cursing\u00a0in the\u00a0workplace\u00a0can feel at once\u00a0satisfying\u2014and fucking terrifying. But fear not,\u00a0there&#8217;s reason to believe\u00a0that\u00a0indulging your\u00a0impulse to\u00a0drop an f-bomb in the office\u00a0is worth it, according to some experts. Here&#8217;s why:<\/p>\n<h2><strong>Everybody&#8217;s doing it<\/strong><\/h2>\n<p>Modern media tell us that workplace swearing is cool. Take\u00a0Martin Scorsese\u2019s latest movie, <em>The Wolf of Wall Street,<\/em> whose\u00a0brash yet\u00a0professionally\u00a0successful characters <a href=\"http:\/\/variety.com\/2014\/film\/news\/wolf-of-wall-street-breaks-f-word-record-1201022655\/\">dropped\u00a0506 f-bombs<\/a>, a record for a feature film. In a\u00a02006\u00a0<a href=\"http:\/\/surveys.ap.org\/data\/Ipsos\/national\/2006\/2006-03-28%20AP%20Profanity%20topline.pdf\">survey by Associated Press\/Ipsos<\/a>\u00a0(pdf),\u00a074% of Americans said\u00a0they encountered profanity in public frequently or occasionally and 66%\u00a0said that\u00a0as a rule, people curse more today than 20 years ago.<\/p>\n<p>There are some prominent examples. After the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, US president Barack Obama famously\u00a0commented\u00a0<a href=\"http:\/\/www.cnn.com\/2010\/POLITICS\/06\/07\/gulf.oil.obama\/\">on the\u00a0<i>Today\u00a0<\/i>show<\/a>\u00a0that\u00a0he&#8217;d been talking to\u00a0experts about the spill to figure out\u00a0&#8220;whose ass to kick.&#8221;\u00a0T-Mobile CEO John Legere, a renegade executive known for his\u00a0potty mouth,\u00a0<a href=\"http:\/\/www.businessinsider.com\/john-legere-profanity-2014-6\">badmouthed competitors<\/a> AT&amp;T and Verizon at a recent press event by saying that\u00a0&#8220;the fuckers hate you.&#8221; Former Yahoo CEO Carol Bartz once told her staff at an all-hands meeting that she&#8217;d &#8220;dropkick to fucking Mars&#8221; anyone whose company gossip ended up on a blog (which her comments\u00a0<a href=\"http:\/\/gawker.com\/5131429\/new-ceo-swears-like-a-sailor-at-yahoo-blabbers\">promptly did<\/a>).<\/p>\n<div id=\"attachment_253995\" style=\"width: 490px\" class=\"wp-caption alignnone\"><img class=\"size-medium_10 wp-image-253995\" src=\"https:\/\/qzprod.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/07\/rtxuq0a.jpg?w=480&#038;h=321\" alt=\"An ever-exuberant Carol Bartz.\"   \/><p class=\"wp-caption-text\">The\u00a0ever-exuberant Carol Bartz.<\/p><\/div>\n<p>A Bloomberg analysis<strong>\u00a0<\/strong><a href=\"http:\/\/www.bloomberg.com\/infographics\/2014-07-16\/graphic-language-the-curse-of-the-ceo.html\">of corporate conference calls<\/a> over the past decade found that CEO cursing spiked after the 2009\u00a0recession\u2014when the shit hit the fan\u2014and dissipated with the recovery. Apparently &#8220;shit&#8221; was\u00a0by far the most popular\u00a0swear word, used more than ten times as much as &#8220;fuck.&#8221; (Bloomberg abbreviated these to S, F, GD and AH.)<\/p>\n<div id=\"attachment_254591\" style=\"width: 490px\" class=\"wp-caption alignnone\"><img class=\"wp-image-254591 size-medium-desktop\" src=\"https:\/\/qzprod.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/07\/cursing-on-conference-calls-with-investors-and-analysts-curses_chartbuilder.png?w=480&#038;h=300\" alt=\"Cursing-on-conference-calls-with-investors-and-analysts-Curses_chartbuilder\"   \/><p class=\"wp-caption-text\">no-caption<\/p><\/div>\n<div id=\"attachment_254592\" style=\"width: 490px\" class=\"wp-caption alignnone\"><img class=\"wp-image-254592 size-medium-desktop\" src=\"https:\/\/qzprod.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/07\/corporate-conference-call-cursing-2004-to-mid-2014-count_chartbuilder.png?w=480&#038;h=161\" alt=\"Corporate-conference-call-cursing-2004-to-mid-2014-Count_chartbuilder\"   \/><p class=\"wp-caption-text\">no-caption<\/p><\/div>\n<p>Earlier politicians and business leaders\u00a0weren&#8217;t necessarily better mannered. But they did have\u00a0fewer of their words recorded, and what went\u00a0on the record was often polished for the sake of politesse. Jack Garner, Franklin D. Roosevelt&#8217;s vice president from 1933 to 1941, once said the job of VP was &#8220;not worth a pitcher of warm piss&#8221; and\u00a0was incensed when newspapers <a href=\"http:\/\/www.houstonchronicle.com\/news\/columnists\/native-texan\/article\/Cactus-Jack-Garner-was-as-prickly-as-his-5647879.php\">changed\u00a0his last word<\/a>\u00a0to &#8220;spit.&#8221;\u00a0The\u00a0<a href=\"http:\/\/content.time.com\/time\/politics\/article\/0,8599,1995258,00.html\" target=\"_blank\">language-scrubbing died down<\/a> as the recording of speeches and interviews became commonplace.<\/p>\n<h2><strong>It&#8217;s\u00a0better than punching someone<\/strong><\/h2>\n<p>Physical violence is <a href=\"http:\/\/dealbook.nytimes.com\/2012\/04\/19\/battle-over-a-chinese-company-turns-physical\/?_php=true&amp;_type=blogs&amp;_r=0\">never the\u00a0right answer<\/a> in the\u00a0workplace, no matter how bad things get. But in certain\u00a0contexts, the occasional\u00a0swear\u00a0word\u00a0can\u00a0be\u00a0an effective way to manage\u00a0frustration and diffuse tension. Research has even found that unleashing\u00a0a cathartic\u00a0bout of expletives can <a href=\"http:\/\/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/pubmed\/19590391\">reduce physical pain<\/a>, so long as\u00a0you do it\u00a0sparingly\u00a0(the more you swear,\u00a0the less effective profanity\u00a0becomes\u00a0as a coping mechanism). Cursing\u00a0appears to elicit\u00a0a fight-or-flight response that releases pain-diminishing endorphins, according to Richard Stephens, a senior lecturer in psychology at Keele University in the UK. It&#8217;s\u00a0&#8220;not necessarily a negative thing,&#8221;\u00a0Stephens has <a href=\"http:\/\/www.thestar.com\/news\/gta\/2014\/05\/16\/swearing_is_actually_good_for_you_study_finds.html\">said of his findings on swearing<\/a>. &#8220;It can be a linguistic tool when dealing with frustrating events.&#8221;<\/p>\n<h2><strong>It boosts leadership<\/strong><\/h2>\n<p>The key to effective workplace swearing is\u00a0to appear\u00a0relatable.\u00a0In an\u00a0<a href=\"http:\/\/www.businessinsider.com\/john-legere-2014-6\">interview with Business Insider<\/a>, T-Mobile&#8217;s Legere said\u00a0he uses profanity\u00a0to connect with his employees and customers\u00a0and come across as an everyman. &#8220;I don&#8217;t walk closely up against the line. I ignore it. It&#8217;s who I am,&#8221; Legere said in the interview. &#8220;I may be a little rough and crude, but I&#8217;m much more like my customers and employees than I am an executive. I think employees relate to the way I speak, customers relate to exactly the way I think and talk.&#8221;<\/p>\n<div id=\"attachment_253992\" style=\"width: 490px\" class=\"wp-caption alignnone\"><img class=\"size-medium_10 wp-image-253992\" src=\"https:\/\/qzprod.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/07\/rtx176r7.jpg?w=480&#038;h=324\" alt=\"T-Mobile's John Legere working the audience.\"   \/><p class=\"wp-caption-text\">T-Mobile&#8217;s John Legere working his\u00a0audience.<\/p><\/div>\n<p>Using\u00a0swear words at choice moments can produce\u00a0an &#8220;emotional wallop&#8221; <a href=\"http:\/\/www.npr.org\/templates\/story\/story.php?storyId=128432881\">that&#8217;s missing in tamer\u00a0words<\/a>, Robert Sutton, an organizational psychologist at Stanford University and the author of\u00a0<em>The No Asshole Rule,\u00a0<\/em>told NPR<em>.\u00a0<\/em>A 2006 study by Northern Illinois University that\u00a0<a href=\"http:\/\/www.niu.edu\/user\/tj0bjs1\/papers\/ss06.pdf\">asked college students<\/a>\u00a0(pdf) to evaluate two five-minute speeches on the merits of lowering tuition fees\u2014one that was PG-rated, and the other with swear words\u2014concluded that swearing made speakers appear more human and hence more\u00a0credible.<em>\u00a0<\/em>Such was the case when Obama swore in his interview about the BP spill; <a href=\"http:\/\/www.forbes.com\/pictures\/eidl45gi\/barack-obama-president-of-the-united-states\/\">commentators praised him<\/a> for using language that <a href=\"http:\/\/www.economist.com\/blogs\/johnson\/2010\/06\/swearing\">showed he cared<\/a>\u00a0(paywall).<\/p>\n<h2><strong>It\u00a0empowers\u00a0women<\/strong><\/h2>\n<p>According to the Harvard Business Review&#8217;s Anne Kreamer, swearing\u00a0helps\u00a0women to penetrate male-dominated networks.\u00a0A senior female attorney <a href=\"http:\/\/www.businessweek.com\/management\/why-you-shouldnt-curse-at-work-much-12272011.html\">once told Kreamer<\/a>, &#8220;Swearing gives men and women reciprocal permission to feel comfortable sharing revelations.&#8221; Similarly, a\u00a0study from\u00a0the UK&#8217;s East Anglia University found that <a href=\"http:\/\/www.uea.ac.uk\/mac\/comm\/media\/press\/2007\/oct\/Survey+says+'never+mind+the+b******s'\">women tend to swear more<\/a> around men as a way to assert themselves and turn the tide in\u00a0male-dominated conversations.<\/p>\n<p>Why? Perhaps because in some cultures, taboo language has given\u00a0men power, according to\u00a0Melissa Mohr, author of <em>Holy Sh*t, a Brief History of Swearing<\/em>. Based on research into\u00a0ancient Roman society, Mohr&#8217;s book argued that, even though women swearing in public is more recent, profanity\u00a0has\u00a0historically been\u00a0<a href=\"http:\/\/www.cnbc.com\/id\/101359718#.\">linked to<\/a>\u00a0sexuality\u00a0and social order. She\u00a0documents how\u00a0men in ancient Rome were put into &#8220;active&#8221; and &#8220;passive&#8221;\u00a0categories, and\u00a0profane words invented solely for &#8220;active&#8221; (read: dominant and virile) men to use on &#8220;passive&#8221; ones. The holdover of that in the modern day, argues Mohr, is that\u00a0many\u00a0swear\u00a0words still\u00a0reference sex or the body.<\/p>\n<p>If public swearing is effective for women, it is also risky; it can be judged more harshly than for men.\u00a0Elizabeth Gordon, who researches speech and gender stereotypes at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand, <a href=\"http:\/\/www.researchgate.net\/publication\/231792112_Sex_speech_and_stereotypes_Why_women_use_prestige_speech_forms_more_than_men\">has found that<\/a> foul-mouthed women in New Zealand were judged\u00a0to be of lower social and moral strata.<\/p>\n<h2>But it isn&#8217;t for everyone<\/h2>\n<p>All this doesn&#8217;t mean you should just let rip some juicy expletives the next time you walk into the office. As with so many things, good execution is key.<strong>\u00a0<\/strong>In the wrong context, swearing\u00a0can sully a worker&#8217;s sense of professionalism, self-control, maturity and intelligence, according to\u00a0a recent\u00a0CareerBuilder\u00a0<a href=\"http:\/\/www.careerbuilder.com\/share\/aboutus\/pressreleasesdetail.aspx?sd=7%2f25%2f2012&amp;sc_cmp1=cb_pr709_&amp;siteid=cbpr&amp;id=pr709&amp;ed=12%2f31%2f2012\" target=\"_blank\">survey<\/a>. It found that\u00a064% of employers thought less of an employee who repeatedly used\u00a0curse words, and 57% were\u00a0less likely to promote someone who swears in the office.<\/p>\n<div id=\"attachment_254595\" style=\"width: 490px\" class=\"wp-caption alignnone\"><img class=\"wp-image-254595 size-medium-desktop\" src=\"https:\/\/qzprod.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/07\/swearing_at_work_002.png?w=480&#038;h=303\" alt=\"swearing_at_work_002\"   \/><p class=\"wp-caption-text\">no-caption<\/p><\/div>\n<p>But even if swearing\u00a0now seems\u00a0ubiquitous, whether it&#8217;s\u00a0appropriate for the office depends largely on\u00a0the\u00a0audience and the delivery. In more casual offices\u2014the kind littered with Silicon Valley-esque hoodies and KIND bars\u2014dressed-down\u00a0language may not only be accepted but\u00a0celebrated. In a place\u00a0that&#8217;s\u00a0more conservative\u00a0or service-oriented, however, it may be wise to tread lightly.<\/p>\n<p>So if you want to give your profanity an airing, spend some time observing your\u00a0new\u00a0office\u00a0first.\u00a0For instance, the practice is\u00a0rife\u00a0at talent agencies, management consultancies, investment banks, media businesses, heavy manufacturers and movie studios, <a href=\"http:\/\/online.wsj.com\/news\/articles\/SB10001424052702304840904577422683764866606?grcc=28204a934b481442b0d8bdc3bfa9bfd9Z3ZhpgeZ0Z17Z200Z22Z2&amp;mod=WSJ_hpp_sections_management&amp;mg=reno64-wsj\">according to the Wall Street Journal<\/a>. In government, retail, and human-resources jobs, for example, it\u00a0might not go down so well. And it depends on geography too.<strong>\u00a0<\/strong>A British advertising executive\u00a0told the Journal that cursing helped define his career because &#8220;everyone swears.&#8221; After\u00a0moving to an ad agency in New York, where he discovered bad\u00a0language was a turnoff,\u00a0he\u00a0quickly\u00a0toned it down.<\/p>\n<p>As for Carol Bartz, after\u00a0being fired from her post at Yahoo, she\u00a0told the Wall Street Journal that the one thing she would have done differently was <a href=\"http:\/\/online.wsj.com\/news\/articles\/SB10001424052702304840904577422683764866606?grcc=28204a934b481442b0d8bdc3bfa9bfd9Z3ZhpgeZ0Z17Z200Z22Z2&amp;mod=WSJ_hpp_sections_management&amp;mg=reno64-wsj\">not use the f-word<\/a>\u00a0(paywall) during her tenure.\u00a0She contrasted this with her previous post as head of Autodesk, where she claimed her use of\u00a0profanity energized employees.\u00a0Four-letter words &#8220;show passion and commitment,&#8221; she said. Staffers there &#8220;loved me.&#8221;<\/p>\n<p>But bad habits can be\u00a0hard to break.\u00a0Fresh from\u00a0being fired, <a href=\"http:\/\/fortune.com\/2011\/09\/08\/carol-bartz-exclusive-yahoo-f-ed-me-over\/\">Bartz told Fortune<\/a>, &#8220;These people fucked me over.&#8221;<\/p>\n",
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            "date": "2014-08-18T04:00:45-07:00",
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            "title": "Fight Club: The Complete Rules",
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            "content": "<ol>\n<li>You do not talk about Fight Club<\/li>\n<li>YOU DO NOT TALK ABOUT FIGHT CLUB.<\/li>\n<li>If someone says stop, goes limp, or taps out, the fight is over.<\/li>\n<li>Only 2 guys to a fight.<\/li>\n<li>One fight at a time.<\/li>\n<li>No shirt, no shoes.<\/li>\n<li>Fights will go on as long as they have to.<\/li>\n<li>If this is your first time at Fight Club, you have to fight.<\/li>\n<li>If this is your second time at Fight Club, you have to help clean up at the end of the evening.<\/li>\n<li><div id=\"attachment_5220\" style=\"width: 310px\" class=\"wp-caption alignright\"><a href=\"https:\/\/thebyronicmandotcom2.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/17-sixth-anniversary.jpg\"><img class=\"size-medium wp-image-5220\" src=\"https:\/\/thebyronicmandotcom2.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/17-sixth-anniversary.jpg?w=300&#038;h=204\" alt=\"You know, it's YOUR fight club, and if you choose not to bring any food...\" width=\"300\" height=\"204\" \/><\/a><p class=\"wp-caption-text\">You know, it&#8217;s YOUR fight club, and if you choose not to bring any food&#8230;<\/p><\/div>\n<p>If this is your third time at Fight Club and you still haven\u2019t brought anything for the potluck table, I mean, it\u2019s not a requirement I guess, but come on, dude.<\/p>\n<\/li>\n<li>No making \u201cwhoosh\u201d or \u201cpow\u201d sounds to give your punches sound effects. Matrix Club meets down the street.<\/li>\n<li>Breakdance fights, or spirited arguments are allowed.<\/li>\n<li>No body armor. I can\u2019t believe that\u2019s not obvious.<\/li>\n<li>No selfies during a fight. This is more advice than a rule.<\/li>\n<li>Talking about fight club in code \u2013 like calling it \u201cBite Shrub\u201d or \u201cKite Flub\u201d or \u201cIte-fay Ub-clay\u201d \u2013 is still considered talking about it.<\/li>\n<li>You get to win on your birthday.<\/li>\n<li>Obvious cracks around Mr. Durden such as \u201cHey, Mr. Durden, you get a haircut? You look like an entirely different person!\u201d or \u201cWho do you think you are, Brad Pitt?\u201d are heavily discouraged.<\/li>\n<li><div id=\"attachment_5221\" style=\"width: 310px\" class=\"wp-caption alignright\"><a href=\"https:\/\/thebyronicmandotcom2.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/articlelarge.jpg\"><img class=\"wp-image-5221 size-medium\" src=\"https:\/\/thebyronicmandotcom2.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/articlelarge.jpg?w=300&#038;h=186\" alt=\"Oh, that's right, we're also expanding in to Fight-PIlates on Wednesdays and Friday mornings.\" width=\"300\" height=\"186\" \/><\/a><p class=\"wp-caption-text\">Oh, that&#8217;s right, we&#8217;re also expanding in to Fight-PIlates on Wednesdays and Friday mornings.<\/p><\/div>\n<p>Thursday night is fajita night.<\/p>\n<\/li>\n<li>THURSDAY NIGHT IS FAJITA NIGHT.<\/li>\n<li>If, hypothetically, this club grew in to a sort of anarchy cult called, like \u2013 and this is off the top of my head \u2013 Project Mayhem, where we \u2013 again, purely as a hypothetical \u2013 destroyed buildings and stuff, you wouldn\u2019t be allowed to talk about that, either.<\/li>\n<li>But if that happened, then you could talk about Fight Club, just not the other thing.<\/li>\n<li>A-HA! GOTCHA!! No, you still can\u2019t talk about Fight Club!<\/li>\n<li>I know we\u2019re all real proud of what we do here and want to show off a little, but, seriously, we just have to say No Kids.<div id=\"attachment_5219\" style=\"width: 310px\" class=\"wp-caption alignright\"><a href=\"https:\/\/thebyronicmandotcom2.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/beat-it.png\"><img class=\"wp-image-5219 size-medium\" src=\"https:\/\/thebyronicmandotcom2.files.wordpress.com\/2014\/08\/beat-it.png?w=300&#038;h=197\" alt=\"Whoo! Way to commit to the theme, fight clubbers!\" width=\"300\" height=\"197\" \/><\/a><p class=\"wp-caption-text\">Whoo! Way to commit to the theme, fight clubbers!<\/p><\/div><\/li>\n<li>The first Saturday of every month will be a theme night, such as our recent \u201cRenaissance Fight Club,\u201d \u201cStar Trek Fight Club\u201d and \u201c80\u2019s Video Fight Club\u201d.<\/li>\n<li>No more bears. I think we\u00a0all learned a valuable lesson in humility that night.<\/li>\n<\/ol>\n",
            "excerpt": "<p>You do not talk about Fight Club YOU DO NOT TALK ABOUT FIGHT CLUB. If someone says stop, goes limp, or taps out, the fight is over. Only 2 guys to a fight. One fight at a time. No shirt, &hellip; <a href=\"http:\/\/thebyronicman.com\/2014\/08\/18\/fight-club-the-complete-rules\/\">Continue reading <span class=\"meta-nav\">&rarr;<\/span><\/a><\/p>\n",
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